IEEE Transactions on Computers

IEEE Transactions on Computers (TC) is a monthly publication that publishes research in such areas as computer organizations and architectures, digital devices, operating systems, and new and important applications and trends.


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From the September 2016 issue

Optimised Multiplication Architectures for Accelerating Fully Homomorphic Encryption

By Xiaolin Cao, Ciara Moore, Maire O’Neill, Elizabeth O’Sullivan, and Neil Hanley

Featured article thumbnail imageLarge integer multiplication is a major performance bottleneck in fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes over the integers. In this paper two optimised multiplier architectures for large integer multiplication are proposed. The first of these is a low-latency hardware architecture of an integer-FFT multiplier. Secondly, the use of low Hamming weight (LHW) parameters is applied to create a novel hardware architecture for large integer multiplication in integer-based FHE schemes. The proposed architectures are implemented, verified and compared on the Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA platform. Finally, the proposed implementations are employed to evaluate the large multiplication in the encryption step of FHE over the integers. The analysis shows a speed improvement factor of up to 26.2 for the low-latency design compared to the corresponding original integer-based FHE software implementation. When the proposed LHW architecture is combined with the low-latency integer-FFT accelerator to evaluate a single FHE encryption operation, the performance results show that a speed improvement by a factor of approximately 130 is possible.

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