Breaking Barriers: Quantum Computing and the Future of Cloud Security

Joseph Chukwube
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Quantum computing, once in the realm of theoretical possibilities now holds exciting promises for practical applications, especially when it comes to solving complex problems at unprecedented speed.

Concurrently, cloud computing is now the backbone of modern data storage and processing, having ushered in an era of unparalleled connectivity. As these two domains converge, it is worth looking at their immense potential but also the critical concerns many experts have raised, especially when it comes to cybersecurity.


Quantum or Cloud Computing, or Both?

Quantum computing is governed by the principles of quantum mechanics, a cornerstone of modern physics. Instead of bits used by traditional computers, quantum computing uses qubits that can superpose both 0 and 1 states.

In simpler terms, this enables the processing of multiple complex solutions in parallel, and thus dramatically accelerates problem-solving.

Graphic comparing quantum computing versus classical computing

This does not mean quantum technologies will change conventional computing as we know it since they are primarily useful for a specific range of tasks; for instance, factoring very large numbers (Shor’s algorithm), which is critical for cryptography, encryption, and cybersecurity.


Potential Cybersecurity Disruptions

As quantum technologies advance, industry leaders are eyeing the disruptive possibilities, none more critical than in cybersecurity. Why cybersecurity? The first immediate concern is that quantum technologies will break our current encryption system.

Traditional encryption algorithms like RSA, which uses public key cryptography (PKC) standards, are effective at security because they rely on mathematical problems that are difficult for traditional computers to solve. Yet, this puts them at risk of exfiltration in the future.

However, quantum computers will be able to solve these problems exponentially faster, rendering those algorithms obsolete. While the full-scale impact of this development remains on the horizon, the urgency to prepare is palpable.

One example of how PKC encryption is no longer dependable is the rise of “harvest now, decrypt later” attacks, by which malicious actors exfiltrate data (even encrypted data), with the aim of decrypting it once quantum decryption solutions are viable. This introduces a new dimension to the reliability of encryption as a cybersecurity strategy.

Your breached data, even though it is encrypted, still puts your company in danger, with the risks depending on how soon the first viable quantum solutions arrive. Therefore, organizations that rely on cloud infrastructure to store and process data must proactively assess their vulnerability to quantum threats.


Responding to Quantum Threats

One of the evolving solutions proposed is quantum-safe cryptography, a form of encryption designed to remain resilient against quantum attacks. However, transitioning from traditional encryption is a multifaceted endeavor that demands careful planning and execution.

graphic explaining quantum cryptography

Organizations leveraging cloud infrastructure must devise strategies to seamlessly integrate quantum-safe cryptographic methods into their existing security frameworks.

For one, the integration approach must be risk-based, beginning with identifying critical systems, applications, and communication channels that require such heightened resilience.

More so, such a transition cannot be a reactive measure, given the huge investment required – it is an act of proactive defense against emerging threats that helps future-proof cloud security.

One measure being explored right now is using quantum techniques to generate true randomness when it comes to cryptography. Current cryptographic methods seem to generate random numbers, but their inner workings show that the numbers are not at all random; they rely on algorithmic calculations. If quantum computing fixes this, it will be a major transformation.

While still in the very early stages, the immense potential of quantum computing is undeniable, and its implications on organizations and how work is done would be far-reaching.

The goal, right now, is to be able to benefit from quantum computing, while at the same time preventing potential harm caused when malicious actors deploy the same technology.

After all, we all see the impact of artificial intelligence in the cybersecurity space – while it has enabled us to secure cyber assets more effectively, it has also been a very useful tool in the hands of cybercriminals.

Another key benefit is deploying quantum artificial intelligence to make machine learning exponentially more efficient (this includes energy efficiency). Training deep learning models takes a huge amount of resources, and this has slowed their full integration into cybersecurity. However, with quantum technologies, we would be better able to identify and respond to novel cyberattacks.

Reflecting Upon the Future Potential

Imagine how much of the digital world is underpinned by cryptographic encryption: communications networks, electronic transactions, digital assets, and lots more.

Even yet-to-be-fully-developed innovations such as autonomous self-driving cars, smart airplanes, and smart cities need a connected digital ecosystem underpinned by advanced encryption. However, when it comes to quantum computing, what we know as advanced encryption strategies today will be a breeze.

What’s the scale of impact we are looking at here? Some years back, a report predicted that the global digital economy will be worth $23 trillion by 2025, which is now fewer than two years away.

Statista similarly predicts that global digital transformation spending will amount to $3.4 trillion by 2026, more than doubling its 2022 figure. In 2023 alone, the public cloud market is set to record $526 billion in revenue, while the global cloud computing market is projected to be estimated at $2.1 trillion by 2030.

These are not insignificant figures, they tell a story of the staggering repercussions that quantum computing will have once it is finally integrated into the digital economy.

The key challenge against adopting quantum technologies faster would be a lack of talent, and this is one area that businesses should start looking into. So far, no organization has taken up the challenge of training the next generation of quantum computing professionals and leaders, which is a fundamental step to accelerating development.



The interplay between quantum computing and cloud security is one that echoes the urgency of quantum threats and the resilience of human ingenuity. We can no longer consider this as a distant abstraction. Rather, it is an imminent reality that demands immediate attention. And organizations must be ready to embrace the transformative capabilities inherent in this development.


Disclaimer: The author is completely responsible for the content of this article. The opinions expressed are their own and do not represent IEEE’s position nor that of the Computer Society nor its Leadership.