S

 

 

s: SI abbreviation for second (for example when part of a compound 30 s, 30 ns); see sec.

 

S.: "south" in addresses

 

SaaS: software as a service

 

SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers

 

safety: in some computing contexts, a technical term meaning the quality of making sure that nothing bad happens. Safety, for example, ensures that a calculation is performed, but not that the results of the calculation are actually returned to a user or program module. Do not use this term without an explanation; compare with liveness.

 

SAML: Security Assertion Markup Language; an OASIS standard

 

SAN: storage area network; system area network

 

SATAN: Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks; do not lowercase the acronym

 

SAX: Simple API for XML

 

scalable: Microsoft Word's spell-check dictionary suggests scaleable, but we spell it without the internal e.

 

ScaLapack: a benchmarking package; see also Lapack

 

scan-in; scan-out (n)

 

scan line (n): one of the lines that make up a graphics display

 

scatterplot

 

Scene: Scientific Computation Environment for Numerical Experimentation, a scientific visualization environment developed at Rutgers

 

schema: term used in artificial intelligence and in modeling to represent an approach, scheme, or relation precisely and usually diagrammatically. Ensure that the generic scheme is inappropriate before using schema. Plural is schemas, not the Greek schemata.

 

Scheme: an artificial intelligence language

 

Schrödinger equation: spell with umlaut, not oe

 

SCI: scalable coherent interface

 

SCO Group: formerly the Santa Cruz Operation (company)

 

scratchpad: a fast auxiliary computer memory, usually used for temporary data storage

 

screen dump (n), screenshot (n), screensaver (n)

 

scroll bar (n)

 

Scrum: a framework for software development

 

SCSI: Small Computer System Interface; pronounced "skuzzy" and takes a as its article

 

SDI: serial digital interface

 

SDK: software developer's kit

 

SDRAM: synchronous DRAM (dynamic random access memory)

 

SE: "southeast" in addresses

 

SEBoK Guide: Preferred abbreviated form when referring to the Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge

 

sec.: nontechnical abbreviation for second. Use s unless confusion could result.

 

second sourcing (n): in manufacturing, the practice of using an alternate company to produce something that the original manufacturer designed and produces itself—for example, when the original manufacturer cannot make enough to meet demand

 

SEI: Software Engineering Institute, a US Defense Dept. research arm (managed by the US Navy) based at Carnegie Mellon University. In Software, SEI doesn't need CMU with it.

 

Semantic Web: an extension of the current Web using standards such as RDF along with ontologies and other mechanisms to define meaning for abstract data to facilitate machine-machine communication

 

semi-: prefix; do not hyphenate

 

September 11, 2001 (9/11)

 

Serial ATA

 

Series 1000: but the 1000 series

 

servocontroller: servo by itself is not sufficient

 

servomechanism: an automatic feedback system that monitors an operation and makes necessary adjustments; servo is not sufficient

 

set-top box: an interactive television device that sits on top of the television

 

setup (n), set up (v)

 

SGI: formerly Silicon Graphics Inc.

 

SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language

 

SGMP: Simple Gateway-Monitoring Protocol

 

shar: shell archive; a file combination protocol

 

shrink-wrapped

 

SI: acronym for the French version of International System of Units, a scientific method of expressing the magnitude or quantity of seven specific natural phenomena

 

SIA: Semiconductor Industry Association

 

SIAM: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

 

SID: Society for Information Display

 

SIG: special-interest group; see ACM

 

Siggraph; Sigmod

 

Sigma: a project to develop a software development workstation environment, staffed by a consortium of companies working under the direction of Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through the Information-Processing Technology Agency (IPA)

 

signs: see the Numbers and Symbols section

 

SIIA: Software Information Industry Assoc.

 

Sim: benchmark

 

SIMD: single instruction, multiple data—the simplest form of parallel architecture; pronounced "sim-dee" and takes a as its article. Spell out on first use if necessary for contextual clarity. Use hyphens when written out and used as a modifier/adjective.

*

SIMM: single, in-line memory module

 

Simox: separation by implanted oxygen

 

single-sign-on

 

single-stuck-at fault model: see stuck-at

 

SIP: Session Initiation Protocol

 

SITA: Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques

 

sizeable: Webster's also uses sizable

 

SkinnyDIP: trademark name for thin-packaged DIP chips (DIP stands for dual in-line package)

 

Slim: Software Life-Cycle Management, a project-estimation system developed by Lawrence Putnam

 

SLOC: source lines of code. Don't spell this out in Software.

 

SLP: Service Location Protocol

 

small-scale (adj)

 

smart card (n)

 

smart home (n), smart-home (adj)

 

smartphone (n)

 

SMD: surface-mount device

 

SME: Society of Manufacturing Engineers

 

SMIL: Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language; use a before acronym—pronounced "smile"

 

S/MIME: secure MIME

 

SMS: short message service

 

SMT: surface-mount technology

 

SMTP: Simple Mail-Transfer Protocol

 

SNAP: scalable networks and platforms; phrase coined by Gordon Bell and Jim Gray at University of California, Berkeley

 

SNMP: Simple Network-Management Protocol

 

SNR: signal-to-noise ratio

 

SOA: service-oriented architecture; pronounced "soh-uh," as in a SOA

*

SOAP: a Web services messaging protocol; originally the acronym for Simple Object Access Protocol, the term is no longer defined in common use

 

SOC: service-oriented computing; service-oriented collaboration

 

SoC: system-on-chip (adj); system on chip (n); systems on chip (n pl); abbreviated plural noun form is SoCs.

 

social network

 

soft copy (n), soft-copy (adj)

 

software engineering (n, adj)

 

software-hardware development (n)

 

Softwire

 

soho: small office/home office

 

SOJ: small-outline, J-lead

 

solid modeling (n), solid-modeling (adj): okay to omit hyphen in graphics or visualization publications

 

son: one of several family words used to describe relationships among nodes in databases; the term is legitimate—don't edit it out

 

Sonet: Synchronous Optical Network; a Bellcore standard

 

Sony PlayStation

 

source code: no hyphen for n or adj

 

SPA: Software Publishers Association, now part of SIIA (see entry above); also scratchpad area (from IEEE)

 

spam: junk email

 

Sparc: Sun Microsystems' scalable processor architecture; a RISC-based CPU used primarily in engineering workstations

 

Sparcstation: examples are Sparcstation IPX and Sparcstation 2

 

SPC: Software Productivity Consortium, a research group

 

SPEC: Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (formerly System Performance Evaluation Cooperative); a vendor-sponsored source of the SPEC benchmarks; examples are the SPECint92 and SPECfp92

 

speedup (n)

 

Spice: simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis

*

SPIE: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers; the organization now styles itself "the international society for optical engineering"

 

spreadsheet (n)

 

Springer: book publisher; use in all references

*

SQL: Structured Query Language

 

squash-and-stretch (n): function that enlarges and reduces, not necessarily in proportion to all dimensions; also called rubberbanding

 

SRAM: static RAM

 

SRI: Stanford Research Institute

 

SSH: Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell; a security protocol

 

SSI: small-scale integration, typically from one to four circuits

 

SSL: Secure Sockets Layer; a security protocol

 

stand-alone (adj)

 

Staran

 

Stars: Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems; a US Defense Dept. project

 

Star Tap

 

StartTLS

 

start-up (n. adj)

 

statechart: not state chart or state-chart

 

state of the art (n), state-of-the-art (adj): represents the highest level of available technology (as compared with "state of the practice," which is the highest level in general use). It is an overworked phrase; consider substituting "current technology.

 

state-transition (adj)

 

stereo pair (n): two pictures that produce a 3D image

 

stuck-at (adj), stuck-at fault (n): a type of circuit defect in which a gate can be stuck at either 1 or 0: stuck-at-1 fault, stuck-at-0 fault; can also be abbreviated as SA1 and SA0

 

stuck-open fault (n): not synonymous with stuck-at fault

 

stylesheet (n, adj)

 

Styrofoam: use foam or plastic foam when referring to generic consumer or packaging products; capitalize when used as a trademark

 

subsystem (n)

 

Sun OS: Sun Microsystems' version of the Unix operating system

 

SunSoft: division of Sun Microsystems that provides system software

 

Sun workstation: initial capital on "Sun"; from Sun Microsystems

 

Sunmos: Sandia/University of New Mexico operating system; an OS for the Intel Paragon parallel supercomputer

 

super-: no hyphen when used to form a compound word (supercomputer)

 

supercomputer (n): no fixed processing speed definition; changes with advances in technology

 

supermini: short for superminicomputer, which is the preferred usage

 

surface: Do not use as a transitive verb in the sense of "bringing to the top." A whale surfaces, but a speaker does not surface an idea. If you must give buoyancy to ideas, float them. However, surface can be used as a transitive verb in the sense of "refining or smoothing a physical surface," as in surfacing lumber.

 

surface-mount device, surface-mount technology: board manufacturing method in which chips are "glued" to boards

 

SW: "southwest" in addresses

 

SWEBOK Guide: Preferred abbreviated format to use when referring to the Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge.

 

SWIG: simplified wrapper and interface generator

 

systemwide

T

 

*

2D: two-dimensional, no hyphen

*

3D: three-dimensional, no hyphen

 

3DES: (say: "triple DES")

 

T1: digital transmission at 1.544 Mbits per second; T3 is a faster line

 

tape out

 

tar: tape archive; file combination protocol

 

task ID: use the one-word form, taskid, only in program statements

 

task type: use the one-word form, tasktype, only in program statements

 

Tbyte: terabyte; one billion bytes

 

TC: technical committee; spell out on first use

 

Tcl/Tk: a computer language developed by John Ousterhout of UC Berkeley; can also be separate—Tcl and Tk

*

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

 

TCPA: Microsoft's Trusted Computing Platform Architecture, formerly known as Palladium

 

TCP/IP: Don't spell this out in the optional magazines.

 

TDM: time-division multiplexing

 

TDMA: time division multiple access

 

telephone numbers: see the Numbers and Symbols section; also CMS 6.77

 

teletext: a noninteractive (broadcast) text/graphics communications system

 

Teletype: use only when describing Teletype Corp. equipment; generic word is teletypewriter

 

teletypewriter: see above; abbreviated TTY

 

television: okay to abbreviate as TV

 

telex: acronym for teletype exchange, a service that permits the transmission of data using commercial telecommunication facilities comprised of a network of teletypewriters

 

Tell-A-Graf: graphics software by Computer Associates International

 

Telenet (n): Terminal Emulation Protocol; US Sprint's switching network originally developed for Arpanet

 

testbed (n): an environment containing all the components necessary for testing a system

 

tests (statistical): F-test; t-test, chi-square test; P value; Wilcoxon rank sum test

 

TeX: see LaTeX; pronounced "tech"

 

Tflops: teraflops; one billion flops

 

TFT: thin-film transistor

 

the: When referring to an academic institution's name that starts with the (such as the University of Texas), lowercase "the" or delete it. Always delete "the" in a byline. This rule stands regardless of the format on university stationery, seals, and so forth. When referring to a corporate entity whose name begins with "the" (such as the Irvine Company), lowercase or delete "the."

 

ThinDIP: trademark name for thin-packaged DIP chips; "DIP" stands for dual in-line package

 

Thomas J. Watson Research Center, T.J. Watson Research Center: an IBM facility; refer to as IBM T.J. Watson Research Center on first use

 

Thomas J. Watson: when referring to the persons, distinguish between Jr. and Sr.

 

three-space, three-dimensional space: a mathematical term; also 3-space; can be written as S3 or R3

 

throughput

 

tif: an electronic file format

*

TIFF: tagged image-file format; graphics-file format; even though the filename extension is .tif, the acronym is TIFF

 

tiling: a nonoverlapping approach to window management

 

time-consuming

 

time frame

 

time line: description of events during a particular historical period; timeline: a schedule of events or procedures

 

time-multiplexed (adj)

 

time-out (n), time out (v)

 

time-shared (adj)

 

time-sharing (n): simultaneous use of a central computer by many users at remote locations

 

time sheet (n)

 

time stamp (n)

 

time step (n), time-step (adj)

 

time to market

 

TI OMAP: Texas Instruments Open Multimedia Applications Platform

 

TIP: terminal interface processor

 

TLB: translation look-aside buffer

 

TLS: Transport Layer Security

 

TMS32010, TMS34010: no space between letters and numbers; processors from Texas Instruments

 

toolbox (n), toolkit (n), toolset (n): one word when used in computer contexts

 

TOP: Technical Office Protocol; see MAP/TOP

 

top-down design

 

touch pad (n): a touch-sensitive user interface

 

touchscreen (n): a touch-sensitive user interface

 

TP0-TP4: Transport Protocol Class 0 to 4; a set of transmission protocols in the ISO protocol suite

 

traceable; traceback; traceroute

 

trackball (n)

 

trademark: The registered trademark (â) symbol indicates that the trademark is registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office; (Ô) indicates that it is pending. Avoid using trademark symbols in text. However, oblige an author who owns a trademark and insists upon its use. In this case, use the company's name before the product on first reference to establish ownership, for example, Sun's Sbus; thereafter, use the product name by itself.

 

tradeoff (n); trade off (v)

 

transition: Do not use as a verb.

 

transputer (n) (transister computer): a microprocessor with local memory and communication links. It's both an Inmos product and a generic term.

 

troff: text run-off; pronounce "tee-roff"; a Unix text-format front-end (coding) and output (printing) processor; variations include nroff and ditroff (device-independent troff)

 

Trojan horse

 

TRON: The Real-Time Operating-System Nucleus, a Japanese computer project to develop hardware and software technology to run household systems that are independent but communicate with each other for smart homes and the like; modules include MTRON, BTRON, ITRON, CTRON, and ITRON

 

TSR: terminate-and-stay-resident

 

TTL: transistor-transistor logic

 

TTS (adj): text-to-speech

 

t-test: a statistical test that deals with the problems associated with inference based on small samples

 

-tuple: suffix for a set <<of so many>> elements

 

turnaround

 

turnkey (adj): describes a system delivered ready to run without adding any hardware or software; synonym for off the shelf

*

TV: abbreviation for television

 

TWAIN: technology without an interesting name—programming interface that lets a graphics application activate a scanner or other image-capturing device

U

 

 

UBE: unsolicited bulk e-mail

 

ubicomp: abbreviation for ubiquitous computing

 

ubiquitous computing: when it's an adjective, no hyphen in Pervasive Computing but hyphenated in other magazines

 

UCE: unsolicited commercial e-mail

 

UCS: universal character set

*

UDDI: universal description, discovery, and integration

 

UDP: User Datagram Protocol

 

UI: unit interval; a measure of time

 

UIMS: user-interface management system; UIMSs (plural)

 

UIP: user-interface presentation

 

UIST: user-interface software and technology

 

UK: United Kingdom (no periods), comprising England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales; not synonymous with Britain. Do not use UK if the country name is sufficient.

 

ULSI: ultralarge-scale integration; can be used as a stand-alone noun when referring to the concept but not to physical objects, for example: ULSI circuit, ULSI chip

 

Ultracomputer: IBM and New York University's supercomputer

 

Ultranet

 

ultrawideband (adj.): See also UWB.

 

UML: Unified Modeling Language. Don't spell this out in Software.

 

UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

 

UN: United Nations (no periods)

 

underway (adv.), under way (adj.)

 

uni-: not hyphenated as a prefix (uniprocessor)

 

unicode

 

UniForum

 

Univac: Universal Automatic Computer

 

University X at Y, or University X, Y, or University X-Y: Follow the specific institution's usage. Although some universities capitalize the and consider it part of the university's name, Computer Society style either deletes or lowercases the word. Thus, it is the Ohio State University (not The Ohio State University) and the University of Kansas (not The University of Kansas). See also the. It's University of California at Santa Barbara, but all other UC campuses use this format: University of California, Berkeley.

 

Unix: a multilanguage operating system developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories; various versions are in existence

 

upgradable

 

UPnP: universal plug and play

 

uppercase

*

URI: uniform resource identifier

*

URL: uniform resource locator

 

URN: uniform resource name

*

US (n, adj): United States; no periods

*

USB: Universal Serial Bus

 

Usenix: now the Advanced Computing Systems Association

 

user-friendly (adj): frequently overused; avoid unless appropriate to the context

 

username

 

USRA: Universities Space Research Association

 

UTF-8: Unicode Transformation Format-8

 

UUCPnet: Unix-to-Unix copy network

 

UWB: ultrawideband, a wireless communication technology