Transactions Department References
In the Transactions Department, references are formatted differently than in other CS periodicals. Here are some basic examples of important formatting guidelines in the Transactions Department, followed by more specific sample formats:
- The city and state of publication are not listed.
- The page numbers cited precede the year of publication.
- “Technical” is written out, rather than abbreviated, and is capitalized when a report number is provided (e.g., Technical Report TR 907-549).
- The “v” for “vol.” and “n” for “no.” are always lower cased and abbreviated as noted here.
- Page numbers over 1,000 will not have a comma.
- Line breaks are not made during the citation of a vol., no., or pp. number (e.g., do not allow a line break between vol. and “8” or pp. and 2-3. However, a break after the hyphen between page numbers is acceptable.) URLs are to be broken following punctuation (after a backslash or period). In references, author names cannot be forced together but editor names can be joined with a (e.g., E. Smith,ed.).
- For proceedings references, the acronym for a conference should follow the spelled out version and be contained within parentheses. The year should be formatted with an apostrophe and two digits (e.g., (MobiHoc '02)). Some conferences can be listed using their acronyms only (such as MobiHoc, MobiCom, and INFOCOM). Other conference acronyms can be removed if needed to save space.
- References will now include tagging to designate IEEE versus non-IEEE sources and the type of reference. Reference types include conference chapters ("confchap"), periodicals ("periodical"), books ("books"), and miscellaneous ("misc"), i.e., or .
Article in a collection
A.J. Albrecht, “Measuring Application-Development Productivity,” Programmer Productivity Issues for the Eighties, C. Jones, ed., pp. 34-43. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Soc. Press, 1981.
Article in a conference proceedings
M. Weiser, “Program Slicing,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 439-449, 1981.
E. Visser, "A Survey of Strategies in Program Transformation Systems," Proc. Workshop Reduction Strategies in Rewriting and Programming (WRS '01), B. Grammlich and S.L. Alba, eds., May 2001.
William Song, "A Semantic Approach to Internal Structure Formation in the Semantic Grid," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Semantics, Knowledge, and Grid (SKG '07), CD-ROM, pp. 248-253, 2007.
Article in a journal or magazine
I.E. Sutherland, R.F. Sproull, and R.A. Schumaker, “A Characterization of 10 Hidden Surface Algorithms,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-55, Mar. 1974.
Entries in a blog:
M. Sahami, “About the Google Education Summit,” blog, 26 Oct. 2007, http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2007/10/about-google-education-summit.html.
M. Watson, “Using the PowerLoom Reasoning System with JRuby,” blog, 2 Oct. 2007, http://markwatson.com/aiblog.
“Reinforcement Learning is Cool,” blog, 24 Oct. 2007, http://smart-machines.blogspot.com/2007/10/reinforcement-learning-is-cool.html. (no named author)
To cite the blog itself:
The Official Google Blog, http://googleblog.blogspot.com. (Google is listed as the publisher here.)
M. Watson, Artifical Intelligence Blog, http://markwatson.com/aiblog.
Artificial Intelligence and Robots, http://smart-machines.blogspot.com. (no named author or publisher)
W.M. Newman and R.F. Sproull, Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, p. 402. Highstown, N.J.: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability—Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, chapter 3, section 3.2, pp. 63-66. W.H. Freeman, 1979.
Place the term “CD-ROM” following the publication's title and preceding the publisher's name. Note: Some CD-ROMs will have page numbers.
The format for a book that is available on CD-ROM is:
W.M. Newman and R.F. Sproull, Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, CD-ROM, McGraw-Hill, 1979.
When a proceedings is published on CD-ROM, follow the accepted format for a proceedings, but add CD-ROM:
William Song, “A Semantic Approach to Internal Structure Formation in the Semantic Grid,” Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Semantics, Knowledge, and Grid (SKG '07), CD-ROM, pp. 248-253, 2007.
Dissertation or thesis
B. Fagin, “A Parallel Execution Model for Prolog,” doctoral [or PhD] dissertation, Dept. of Computer Sciences, Univ. California, Berkeley, 1987.
M. Nichols, “The Graphical Kernel System in Prolog,” master’s thesis, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, N.Y., 1985.
Article in a journal:
D. Kornack and P. Rkic, “Cell Proliferation without Neurogenesis in Adult Primate Neocortex,” Science, vol. 294, pp. 2127-2130, Dec. 2001, doi:10.1126/science.1065467.
Article in a conference proceedings:
H. Goto, Y. Hasegawa, and M. Tanaka, “Efficient Scheduling Focusing on the Duality of MPL Representation,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Computational Intelligence in Scheduling (SCIS 07), pp. 57-64, Apr. 2007, doi:10.1109/SCIS.2007.367670.
See the listing under general style for complete policy. Make certain to break the URL link at a convenient “/” or "." if it will not fit onto one line. See the instructions on formatting URLs for more information.
L.P. Burka, “A Hypertext History of Multiuser Dimensions,” MUD History, http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/home/lpb/mud-history.html, [(date information as accessed by the author citing the references—format in IEEE date style—e.g., 5 Dec. 1995)].*
*Access date can be listed before or after the URL as needed for formatting.
J. Butler, “CASE Outlook,” System Development Newsletter, p. 3, Applied Computer Research, Nov. 1987.
Including original title (we usually do not translate it into English):
A.N. Zhirabok and A.E. Shumskii, Electronnoe modelirovanie. Energoatomizdat, 1984 (in Russian).
Original title unprintable:
T. Nakayama, “NEC Corporation Develops 32-Bit RISC Microprocessor,” Nikkei Electronics, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 111-121, Dec. 1995 (in Japanese).
With information about patentee:
M. Hoff, S. Mazor, and F. Faggin, Memory System for Multi-Chip Digital Computer, US patent 3,821715, to Intel Corp., Washington, D.C.: Patent and Trademark Office, 1974.
Without patentee information:
Digital-to-AnalogConverting Unit with Improved Linearity, US patent 5,162,800, Washington, D.C.: Patent and Trademark Office, 1992.
References of this type are accepted by the Transactions Department. Include as much information as possible about the article or paper, including the date and page numbers if known. If the author does not know where the article will be published, use the phrase “submitted for publication.”
R. Lee, “New-Media Processing,” to be published in IEEE Micro, vol. 16, no. 4, Aug. 1996.
G. Stein, “Implementing Cubist Structures,” submitted for publication.
Personal communication and unpublished materials
These are usually not referenced because they are not available to the reader. Authors who insist on attributing material obtained through personal communication should identify the source of the information in the main text (i.e., as Maria Youngblood noted during a conference panel, . . . ).
Recommendation ITU-R BT.601, Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Studios, Int’l Telecommunications Union, 1992.
IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems, IEEE Standard 802.16 Working Group Std., 2002.
Y. Wang, “Maximum and Minimum Consistent Global Checkpoints and Their Application,” Proc. Sixth IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems, pp. 86-95, Oct. 1995.
“Requirements for Software-Engineering Databases,” technical memo, Imperial Software Technology, 1983.
With report number:
C. Hoffman and J. Hopcroft, “Quadratic Blending Surfaces,” Technical Report TR-85-674, Computer Science Dept., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y., 1985.
Without report number:
E. Yarwood, “Toward Program Illustration,” technical report, Computer Systems Research Group, Univ. of Toronto, 1977.
Technical or user manual
Unix System V Interface Definition, issue 2, vol. 2, Murray Hill, N.J.: AT&T, 1986.
“Introduction to the Simics Full System Simulator without Equal,” white paper, Virutech, 2002.