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Christoph H. Lampert , IST Austria, Klosterneuburg
Hannes Nickisch , Philips Research, Hamburg
Stefan Harmeling , Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Tübingen
ABSTRACT
We study the problem of object recognition for categories for which we have no training examples, a task also called zero-data or zero-shot learning. This situation has hardly been studied in computer vision research, even though it occurs frequently: the world contains tens of thousands of different object classes and for only few of them image collections have been formed and suitably annotated. To tackle the problem we introduce attribute-based classification: objects are identified based on a high-level description that is phrased in terms of semantic attributes, such as the object's color or shape. Because the identification of each such property transcends the specific learning task at hand, the attribute classifiers can be pre-learned independently, e.g. from existing image datasets unrelated to the current task. Afterwards, new classes can be detected based on their attribute representation, without the need for a new training phase. In this paper we also introduce a new dataset, Animals with Attributes, of over 30,000 images of 50 animal classes, annotated with 85 semantic attributes. Extensive experiments on this and two more datasets show that attribute-based classification indeed is able to categorize images without access to any training images of the target classes.
INDEX TERMS
Computer vision, Image Processing and Computer Vision, Image Representation, Pattern Recognition, Object recognition, Statistical, Classifier design and evaluation
CITATION
Christoph H. Lampert, Hannes Nickisch, Stefan Harmeling, "Attribute-Based Classification for Zero-Shot Learning of Object Categories", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, , no. 1, pp. 1, PrePrints PrePrints, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2013.140
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