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Computing Now Exclusive Content — July 2010

News Archive

July 2012

Gig.U Project Aims for an Ultrafast US Internet

June 2012

Bringing Location and Navigation Technology Indoors

May 2012

Plans Under Way for Roaming between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks

Encryption System Flaw Threatens Internet Security

April 2012

For Business Intelligence, the Trend Is Location, Location, Location

Corpus Linguistics Keep Up-to-Date with Language

March 2012

Are Tomorrow's Firewalls Finally Here Today?

February 2012

Spatial Humanities Brings History to Life

December 2011

Could Hackers Take Your Car for a Ride?

November 2011

What to Do about Supercookies?

October 2011

Lights, Camera, Virtual Moviemaking

September 2011

Revolutionizing Wall Street with News Analytics

August 2011

Growing Network-Encryption Use Puts Systems at Risk

New Project Could Promote Semantic Web

July 2011

FBI Employs New Botnet Eradication Tactics

Google and Twitter "Like" Social Indexing

June 2011

Computing Commodities Market in the Cloud

May 2011

Intel Chips Step up to 3D

Apple Programming Error Raises Privacy Concerns

Thunderbolt Promises Lightning Speed

April 2011

Industrial Control Systems Face More Security Challenges

Microsoft Effort Takes Down Massive Botnet

March 2011

IP Addresses Getting Security Upgrade

February 2011

Studios Agree on DRM Infrastructure

January 2011

New Web Protocol Promises to Reduce Browser Latency

To Be or NAT to Be?

December 2010

Intel Gets inside the Helmet

Tuning Body-to-Body Networks with RF Modeling

November 2010

New Wi-Fi Spec Simplifies Connectivity

Expanded Top-Level Domains Could Spur Internet Real Estate Boom

October 2010

New Weapon in War on Botnets

September 2010

Content-Centered Internet Architecture Gets a Boost

Gesturing Going Mainstream

August 2010

Is Context-Aware Computing Ready for the Limelight?

Flexible Routing in the Cloud

Signal Congestion Rejuvenates Interest in Cell Paging-Channel Protocol

July 2010

New Protocol Improves Interaction among Networked Devices and Applications

Security for Domain Name System Takes a Big Step Forward

The ROADM to Smarter Optical Networking

Distributed Cache Goes Mainstream

June 2010

New Application Protects Mobile-Phone Passwords

WiGig Alliance Reveals Ultrafast Wireless Specification

Cognitive Radio Adds Intelligence to Wireless Technology

May 2010

New Product Uses Light Connections in Blade Server

April 2010

Browser Fingerprints Threaten Privacy

New Animation Technique Uses Motion Frequencies to Shake Trees

March 2010

Researchers Take Promising Approach to Chemical Computing

Screen-Capture Programming: What You See is What You Script

Research Project Sends Data Wirelessly at High Speeds via Light

February 2010

Faster Testing for Complex Software Systems

IEEE 802.1Qbg/h to Simplify Data Center Virtual LAN Management

Distributed Data-Analysis Approach Gains Popularity

Twitter Tweak Helps Haiti Relief Effort

January 2010

2010 Rings in Some Y2K-like Problems

Infrastructure Sensors Improve Home Monitoring

Internet Search Takes a Semantic Turn

December 2009

Phase-Change Memory Technology Moves toward Mass Production

IBM Crowdsources Translation Software

Digital Ants Promise New Security Paradigm

November 2009

Program Uses Mobile Technology to Help with Crises

More Cores Keep Power Down

White-Space Networking Goes Live

Mobile Web 2.0 Experiences Growing Pains

October 2009

More Spectrum Sought for Body Sensor Networks

Optics for Universal I/O and Speed

High-Performance Computing Adds Virtualization to the Mix

ICANN Accountability Goes Multinational

RFID Tags Chat Their Way to Energy Efficiency

September 2009

Delay-Tolerant Networks in Your Pocket

Flash Cookies Stir Privacy Concerns

Addressing the Challenge of Cloud-Computing Interoperability

Ephemeralizing the Web

August 2009

Bluetooth Speeds Up

Grids Get Closer

DCN Gets Ready for Production

The Sims Meet Science

Sexy Space Threat Comes to Mobile Phones

July 2009

WiGig Alliance Makes Push for HD Specification

New Dilemnas, Same Principles:
Changing Landscape Requires IT Ethics to Go Mainstream

Synthetic DNS Stirs Controversy:
Why Breaking Is a Good Thing

New Approach Fights Microchip Piracy

Technique Makes Strong Encryption Easier to Use

New Adobe Flash Streams Internet Directly to TVs

June 2009

Aging Satellites Spark GPS Concerns

The Changing World of Outsourcing

North American CS Enrollment Rises for First Time in Seven Years

Materials Breakthrough Could Eliminate Bootups

April 2009

Trusted Computing Shapes Self-Encrypting Drives

March 2009

Google, Publishers to Try New Advertising Methods

Siftables Offer New Interaction Model for Serious Games

Hulu Boxed In by Media Conglomerates

February 2009

Chips on Verge of Reaching 32 nm Nodes

Hathaway to Lead Cybersecurity Review

A Match Made in Heaven: Gaming Enters the Cloud

January 2009

Government Support Could Spell Big Year for Open Source

25 Reasons For Better Programming

Web Guide Turns Playstation 3 Consoles into Supercomputing Cluster

Flagbearers for Technology: Contemporary Techniques Showcase US Artifact and European Treasures

December 2008

.Tel TLD Debuts As New Way to Network

Science Exchange

November 2008

The Future is Reconfigurable

The ROADM to Smarter Optical Networking

by George Lawton

Optical networking is the key to today's high-capacity, high-speed networks, including the Internet. And as network traffic keeps getting heavier and less predictable, the switching must keep getting smarter.

For optical networking to continue to advance, service providers must implement improved intelligent switching. Providers are thus beginning to adopt reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers in their networks.

Although not a well-known technology, ROADMs — sold by vendors such as Alcatel-Lucent, Adva Optical Networking, and Ciena — are crucial to high-speed networking's future.

The technology simplifies the process of adding multiple optical signals to and dropping signals from a single fiber, a critical part of optical switching. This makes building and managing wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) networks easier.

ROADMs can also switch data via optical circuits without having to convert signals into an electronic format and then back into an optical format.

"This saves a tremendous amount of money on optoelectronic-conversion equipment," said Andrew Schmitt, directing analyst at Infonetics Research, a market analysis firm.

ROADMs can boost a network's performance, scalability, and remote configurability; and let service providers more quickly change topologies, roll out new services, adjust network configurations, and add communications channels.

ROADMs are not new, but owing to technology improvements, bandwidth demand, and lower costs, they now represent the fastest-growing segment of the optical-equipment market, Schmitt noted. He said the market is now growing at about 20 percent per year.

Information Gatekeepers Inc. (IGI) predicts the worldwide ROADM market will grow from US$2.35 billion this year to $3.4 billion by 2012.

Demand is being driven by an increase in Internet traffic and in bandwidth-intensive applications such as high-definition video, noted Current Analysis analyst Jason Marcheck.

Nonetheless, ROADM technology still faces technical and marketplace challenges.

Backgrounder

WDM optical networks increase capacity by simultaneously carrying multiple signals — each on its own wavelength — on a single fiber. This increased capacity makes them ideal for long-haul networks.

The networks switch signals by adding them to and dropping them from the various cables in the system.

Traditional OADMs used hardwired components to add and drop only single specific wavelengths on single fibers at a time when switching. ROADMs, on the other hand, can add or drop multiple wavelengths at a time.

History

In 2002, vendors such as JDS Uniphase announced the commercial availability of ROADM components.

The first generation used wavelength blockers, said JDSU chief technology officer Brandon Collings. Wavelength blockers use filters to let specific wavelengths travel out of fibers, while blocking the others.

However, these ROADMs still required some manual reconfiguration of optical circuit paths, noted Marcheck. In addition, they required manual adjustments of optical-signal power levels when changing the path a particular wavelength traveled.

Planar lightwave circuit (PLC) ROADMs, introduced in 2004, were smaller than early ROADMs, but still could add or drop optical signals on only a fixed wavelength at a time.

The wavelength selective switching (WSS) ROADM emerged in 2005, said Collings. A single component can simultaneously add or drop up to 96 signals on up to 23 fibers, thereby offering higher performance than PLC ROADMs.

The ability to automatically add or drop multiple optical signals, thereby supporting more connections, makes ROADMs more cost effective and gives carriers more flexibility as they design and configure their networks, Collings said.

ROADM and WDM

ROADMs are part of the evolution of WDM. Early WDM networks used hardwired lasers, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and receivers. They thus had to be manually reconfigured by switching out components to make network-infrastructure changes.

Today's WSS-based ROADMs let carriers avoid manual reconfiguration, said IGI analyst Clifford R. Holliday.

Also, the processing involved in switching data between fibers required early WDM systems to convert signals from optical to electronic and then back again.

However, this process consumes considerable energy and slows performance, said Michael Ritter, Adva's vice president for technical marketing. Moreover, optoelectronic switches must be upgraded every time network bandwidth increases.

A Closer Look

A ROADM switch sits at each hub in a regional network. A typical WSS ROADM consists of elements such as electrically tunable mirrors, microelectromechanical systems, or liquid-crystal-on-silicon components to selectively guide multiple light signals from the rest of the wavelengths on a fiber and switch them to other fibers. Control-plane software provides management functionality.

Reducing the size and increasing the precision of these components have let manufacturers squeeze more of them into a ROADM switch, thereby enabling the device to add or drop signals on up to 23 fibers at a time.

Reducing the spacing between signals on the fiber and passing through the ROADM from 100 to 50 GHz has increased the number of signals a ROADM can switch simultaneously from 44 to 96.

ROADMs can be used on Ethernet, Sonet (synchronous optical network), and other types of networks because they are protocol-neutral.

ROADM networks are scalable and easy to roll out because operators can add or upgrade transmitters and receivers without touching the networking equipment in between.

Also, ROADMs enable remote network changes via components that users can direct to electronically adjust various elements.

Newer ROADMs can automatically maintain signal strengths at levels high enough to reach receivers without being strong enough to damage them. ROADM equipment makers like Adva and Ciena combine raw optical components, such as filters, with control-plane software that measures the optical-signal-to-noise ratio and makes adjustments as required.

Increased flexibility

The increase in the number of signals and fibers ROADMs can work with adds flexibility to network operations.

For example, today's ROADMs can easily add more capacity between nodes and can enable more nodes to connect as necessary, either as end or intermediate points. This also adds routing options.

Managing traffic

All mission-critical networks need a backup connection in case a fiber is cut. In a traditional Sonet network, an entire fiber must be dedicated to back up each link. Because ROADMs allow multiple fibers to be connected, more complicated network meshes are possible, which would provide redundancy using fewer fibers.

ROADMs use two primary approaches to managing optical switching.

Adva works with generalized multiprotocol label switching, which automatically sets up traffic paths through a switched optical network, using packet labels rather than a routing table. This moves traffic faster and makes it easier to manage.

Ciena and some other vendors back the International Telecommunication Union’s family of Automatically Switched Optical Networking Protocols. They enable intelligent, automated, dynamic, policy-driven control of an optical network based on user needs in areas such as bandwidth and quality-of-service.

ROAD-M-Blocks

One of ROADM adoption's biggest roadblocks has been cost. "I don't think anyone argues that they don't pay for themselves [in the long run]," IGI's Holliday explained. But operators have to pay for the entire network up front first, noted Infonetics' Schmitt.

Because of the high up-front costs, Ritter said, ROADMs are not cost-efficient for low-capacity services.

And at some point, network systems must convert optical signals into electrical ones for routing because, Ritter pointed out, there are no optical routers. This limits network performance and energy efficiency.

ROADMs lack the granularity of traffic control necessary to route individual packets in ways that dynamically optimize network routes on the fly.

And ROADM systems will need more automated management capabilities to enable automatic network reconfiguration, thereby avoiding manual intervention.

The ROADM Ahead

ROADMs are growing more popular because their equipment and operation are becoming less expensive, because of higher production volumes, less-expensive components, and more power efficiency, said Holliday.

Initially, most vendors anticipated ROADMs would be used primarily in long-haul, high-volume networks between cities, which require greater the ability to add or drop greater numbers of signals.

However, such networks represent only 20 to 30 percent of the ROADM market, according to Vinny Morrin, Ciena's senior director of transport portfolio management.

Market adoption has been mostly in smaller, shorter-haul, lower-volume, metro and regional networks, said Morrin. This has occurred as operators have realized that ROADMs could let them expand and operate their networks more cost effectively.

Because ROADMs for short-haul networks only need to add or drop up to four signals at a time, they can use less expensive lasers and receivers. Thus, Holliday noted, they cost 50 to 75 percent as much as high-end ROADMs.

Therefore, Morrin predicted, vendors will focus on building smaller, less expensive ROADMs.

For high-end products, vendors are trying to increase the simultaneous number of signals ROADMs can add or drop, as well as the number of fibers they can work with. This could improve optical networks’ performance, reconfigurability, and adaptability.

ROADMs' role in improving optical-networking automation will be limited until component makers develop better technology for measuring and compensating for changes in characteristics such as signal dispersion and attenuation, according to Current Analysis' Marcheck.

Ritter predicted most optical networks will use ROADMs as a standard component within five years and will integrate more with control-plane software, which will improve management, enhance reconfigurability, and use network resources more efficiently.

George Lawton is a freelance technology writer based in Monte Rio, California. Contact him at glawton@glawton.com.