IEEE Transactions on Computers
IEEE Transactions on Computers (TC) is a monthly publication that publishes research in such areas as computer organizations and architectures, digital devices, operating systems, and new and important applications and trends.
From the February 2015 issue
Adaptive Cache Coherence Mechanisms with Producer–Consumer Sharing Optimization for Chip Multiprocessors
By Abdullah Kayi, Olivier Serres, and Tarek El-Ghazawi
In chip multiprocessors (CMPs), maintaining cache coherence can account for a major performance overhead. Write-invalidate protocols adapted by most CMPs generate high cache-to-cache misses under producer–consumer sharing patterns. Accordingly, this paper presents three cache coherence mechanisms optimized for CMPs. First, to reduce coherence misses observed in write-invalidate-based protocols, we propose a dynamic write-update mechanism augmented on top of a write-invalidate protocol. This mechanism is specifically triggered at the detection of a producer–consumer sharing pattern. Second, we extend this adaptive protocol with a bandwidth-adaptive mechanism to eliminate performance degradation from write-updates under limited bandwidth. Finally, proximity-aware mechanism is proposed to extend the base adaptive protocol with latency-based optimizations. Experimental analysis is conducted on a set of scientific applications from the SPLASH-2 and NAS parallel benchmark suites. The proposed mechanisms were shown to reduce coherence misses by up to 48% and in return speed up application performance up to 30%. Bandwidth-adaptive mechanism is proven to perform well under varying levels of available bandwidth. Results from our proposed proximity-aware extension demonstrated up to 6% performance gain over the base adaptive protocol for 64-core tiled CMP runs. In addition, the analytical model provided good estimates for performance gains from our adaptive protocols.
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