D

 

 

DA: design automation

 

D/A: digital/analog

 

DAC: digital-analog converter; Design Automation Conference

 

DAG: directed acyclic graph; a data structure for representing computer graphics

 

daisy chain (n), daisy-chained (adj)

 

daisywheel

 

DAML: DARPA Agent Markup Language

 

DAML+OIL: DARPA Agent Markup Language + ontology inference layer; spell out on first use

*

DARPA: US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

 

DASD: direct-access storage device

 

DASH: Design Aid Schematic Helpmate

 

data: Follow author preference for use as singular or plural, but maintain consistency within an article (unless context clearly demands inconsistency).

 

database, datacenter, datapath, dataset, datatype

 

data-entry (adj): as in data-entry switch

 

dataflow (n, adj)

 

data mining

 

Data General: The Westboro, Mass.-based company's products include Eclipse MV/8000, Eclipse MV/1000 superminicomputer, Eclipse S130, and GW/4000 graphics workstation.

 

daughter: One of several family words used in computer-based relationships. Although preferred usage is the gender-neutral "child," the term is legitimate; do not edit out.

 

Davic: Digital Audio Video Interactive Council

 

dB: decibels (40 dB)

 

dBase II, dBase III, dBase III+: database products produced by Ashton-Tate

 

DBMS: database management system; plural form is DBMSs

*

DC: direct current

 

DCE: Distributed Computing Environment

 

DCFL: direct coupled field-effect transistor logic

 

DCOM: Distributed Component Object Model

 

DCT: discrete cosine transform

 

DDL: document-description language

 

DDN: Defense Data Network

 

DDN PMO: Defense Data Network Program Management Office

 

DEC: Use Digital Equipment Corp. on first reference in text; DEC or Digital is acceptable for subsequent references.

 

DEC 10: The DEC 10 is the same computer as the PDP-10. Digital Equipment Corp. changed the name to DEC 10 around 1973.

 

decimals: See the Numbers and Symbols section.

 

decision maker (n), decision making (n), decision-making (adj)

 

DECnet: A Digital Equipment Corp. facilities' network

 

DECsystem-10

 

DECUS: Digital Equipment Corp. Users Society; absorbed into Encompass, an HP users group

 

deep-submicron (adj)

 

degrees: spell out in text when used as a unit of measure; educational degrees: see academic degrees; use symbol for temperatures

 

Denelcor: a defunct company famous for making the HEP, a parallel processor no longer in production

 

denial-of-service (adj): abbreviation is DoS

 

depth buffer: see z-buffer

 

DES: Data Encryption Standard

 

design by contract (n)

 

desktop

 

device-independent (adj): capable of making I/O requests without regard for the characteristics of I/O equipment

 

DFM: design for manufacturability

 

DFT: discrete Fourier transform; design for testability

 

DHCP: dynamic host configuration protocol

 

Dhrystone: a benchmark

 

DHTML: Dynamic HTML

 

dialog: as in dialog box

 

dialogue: a conversation. Be consistent regarding spelling if dialogue and dialog appear in proximity.

 

dial-up (adj)

 

Diffserv: differentiated services

 

Digital Equipment Corp.: spell out on first reference in text; use DEC or Digital for subsequent references

 

dimensions: Whether you spell out the term or use abbreviations, be consistent: 8 ft. ´ 5 ft. or eight feet by five feet. See the Numbers and Symbols section.

 

DIMM: dual inline memory module

 

DIP: dual in-line package; also, MiniDIP with no hyphen

 

disk: preferred, as in floppy disk; however, disc is the standard in optics, farming, and medical applications

 

display-list (adj)

 

Disspla: initial cap. only; product of Computer Associates Int'l

 

distributed computing system: A system in which storage and processing facilities are dispersed and loosely coupled by transmission media; also a system in which many processors perform a computation in parallel

 

DIVE: Distributed Interactive Virtual Environment

 

DLL: dynamic linked library

 

DMA: direct memory access

*

DNS: Domain Name System

 

doctorate: preferred over doctor's degree

 

DoD: Use Department of Defense on first reference; consider using Defense Department instead; add US if context isn't clear.

 

DoD-Std: Department of Defense standard; not the same as Mil-Std

 

DoE: Use Department of Energy on first reference; consider using Energy Department instead; add US if context isn't clear.

 

DOF: degrees of freedom

*

DOI: digital object identifier

 

DoJ: Use Department of Justice on first reference; consider using Justice Department instead; add US if context isn't clear.

 

DOM: document object model

*

DOS: disk operating system

 

DoS: see denial-of-service

 

dot-com: Internet-based business

 

dot matrix printer: no hyphen

 

double-buffer (adj): as in a double-buffer scheme

 

double buffering

 

download (v)

 

downtime (n)

 

DPA attack: differential power analysis

 

dpi: dots per inch

 

DPMA: Data Processing Management Association

 

DPMI: DOS protected-mode interface

*

DRAM: dynamic RAM (pronounced "dee-ram")

 

DRAM module: a group of dynamic RAM chips packaged together

 

DRM: digital rights management

*

DSL: digital subscriber line

 

DSP: digital signal processor (chips); digital signal processing (applications, systems). Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

 

DSS: decision support system

 

DSSS: direct sequence spread spectrum

 

DTD: document type definition; an SGML term

 

DTF: dielectric thin film (filters)

 

DTR: data terminal ready

 

DUT: device under test

*

DVD: digital video disc or digital versatile disc

 

DXF: data exchange file (format)

E

 

 

E.: "east" in addresses

 

e-: prefix denoting "electronic," as in e-commerce, e-health, e-learning, e-publishing, e-science, but not in email. When using in an article title, capitalize the "e," but not the word following the hyphen, as in "E-commerce in Asia."

 

on Earth (planet), of the earth (soil)

 

EasyLiving: A ubiquitous-computing project of the Vision Group at Microsoft Research. Don't call it "easy living."

 

eBay

 

EBCDIC: extended binary-coded decimal-interchange code; compare with ASCII

 

ECC: error-correcting code

 

ECL: emitter-coupled logic

 

E/D: enhancement/depletion mode

 

EDI: electronic data interchange

 

editor in chief (n), editor-in-chief (adj): Editor in Chief Bill Smith; Bill Smith, the magazine's editor in chief; editor-in-chief position

 

EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator

 

EDVAC: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

 

Eeprom: electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

 

e.g.: exempli gratia; substitute such as or for example

 

EGA: extended graphics adapter or array; an IBM color-display standard allowing 16 colors

 

EIA: Electronic Industries Alliance

 

EIAJ: Electronic Industries Association of Japan

 

eigen-: prefix meaning "characteristic"

 

EISA: extended international standard architecture

 

Eispack: benchmark

 

EJB: Enterprise JavaBeans

 

E-JFET: n-channel enhancement mode junction field-effect transistor

 

electron beam (n), electron-beam (adj)

 

ellipsis: See the Punctuation section or CMS 13.48-13.56.

 

email: electronic mail; use curly brackets to list multiple persons at the same email address, for example, {jsmith, pjones, abrown}@computer.org.

 

EMS: Expanded Memory Specification; a standard developed by Lotus Development, Intel, Microsoft, and AST Research for configuring and addressing memory above the MS-DOS direct-address 640-Kbyte limit. Also known as LIM EMS, from the companies' names. AST became a development partner after the acronym was coined.

 

end-fire coupling

 

endpoint (n): use in a geometric context and when referring to networks; otherwise, use two words: end point

 

 

end user (n), end-user (adj): the ultimate user or customer. Use just user unless distinguishing different types of users, such as testing user, support user. Consider substituting customer.

*

ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer; an early-generation computer

 

Eprom: erasable programmable read-only memory

*

EPS: encapsulated PostScript

 

ERP: enterprise resource planning

 

Esprit: European Strategic Programme for Research and Development; retain the spelling of Programme

 

et al.: et alia; use for more than three authors in a bibliography, including a period after al.; okay to substitute and colleagues or and coauthors in text

 

etc.: et cetera; substitute and so forth or and so on

 

Ethernet: LAN technology; also, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

*

EU: European Union, formerly the European Community

 

euclidean: lowercase in most uses except when referring to the Euclidean algorithm

 

Euler: (pronounced "oiler;" takes an as its article); adjective describing a mathematical concept

 

Euler-Poincaré formula: a graphics algorithm

 

euro: European monetary unit

 

EuroASIC: European Conference on Application Specific Integrated Circuits

 

EuroDAC: European Design Automation Conference

 

European Federation of National Engineering Associations

 

EuroVHDL: European Conference on VHSIC Hardware Description Language

 

EUUG: European Unix Users Group; now known as EurOpen

*

Extensible Markup Language: XML; okay to use acronym on first use

 

Extreme Progamming (XP): not eXtreme Programming

 

 

F

 

 

fail-soft-features

 

fan-in, fan-out (n, adj): types of logic networks

 

fan in, fan out (v)

*

FAQ

 

farad: unit of capacitance

 

Fastbus: an IEEE standard

 

Fast Ethernet

 

fast Fourier transform (FFT): (not hyphenated) decoding algorithm

 

father: One of several family words used to describe relationships among nodes in databases. Although preferred usage is the gender-neutral parent, both terms are legitimate; do not edit out.

 

fault tolerance (n), fault-tolerant (adj): a system's capability to keep executing in the presence of a limited number of faults

*

fax: document facsimile, document facsimile telecommunications equipment

 

FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface

 

FDM: frequency-division multiplexing

 

FEA: finite-element analysis; also acronym for Fast Ethernet Alliance

 

Fellow: uppercase in "IEEE Fellow" and other similar titles; she's a fellow of IEEE

 

FEM: finite-element method

 

femtosecond: one quadrillionth of a second

 

FET: field-effect transistor; also occurs in combinations, such as MESFET

 

ff: femtofarad

 

FF: flip-flop; spell out in text

 

FFT: fast Fourier transform

 

Fhourstone: a benchmark

 

FHSS: frequency hopping spread spectrum

 

Fibre Channel: computer communications protocol for high-performance information transfer

 

fiber optic (n), fiber-optic (adj)

 

field testing (n); field-testing (adj, v); field-test (v)

 

FIFO (adj): first-in, first-out; for example, first-in, first-out accounting

 

filename: can be used as two words when not relevant to computers

 

file system

 

finite-element analysis

 

FIPA: Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents

 

FIPS: federal information-processing standard

 

FIR: finite-length impulse response

 

FireWire: trademarked name for IEEE 1394, an external bus standard

 

fixed-bubble memory

 

fixed-length field

 

fixed point (n): notation in which the position of the point is fixed in relation to the numerals, according to some convention

 

fixed-point (adj): as in fixed-point arithmetic

 

fJ: femtojoule

 

Flash: proprietary Adobe software platform

 

flash memory

 

flat-panel display

 

Flex/32: system from Flexible Computer Corp.

 

flip-flop (n): circuit or device capable of assuming one of two states at a given time, abbreviated FF

 

flits: flow-control digits

 

floating point (n); floating-point (adj): notation in which the location of a point is not fixed but is regularly recalculated; the location is usually expressed as a power of the base

 

floorplan

 

flops: floating-point operations per second; never flop, except when quoting the use of this incorrect form. For example, the 1993 Branscomb Report is titled "From Desktop to Teraflop ..." Don't change the title, but the report talks about building a teraflops, not teraflop, computer.

 

flowchart

 

flow control (n), flow-control (adj): the sequence of operations performed in the execution of an algorithm

 

flowgraph

 

flowtime

 

FOAF: Friend-of-a-Friend Protocol

 

focused, focusing

 

follow-up (n, adj), follow up (v)

 

footprint: loosely defined as the amount of space a machine takes on a surface (usually a floor or desktop) or as the system resources an application uses in a computer

 

foreign: Because the IEEE is an international society, "foreign" is not truly applicable in our publications when referring to nationalities; use "non-US" or "international" instead. Italicize terms that are not commonly accepted in English, but use such terms only when there is no suitable English equivalent. See the Non-English Words and Phrases section and CMS 7.49-7.53.

 

formulas: not formulae

 

Forth: a programming language

 

Fortran: for formula translator, a programming language; dialects include Fortran 77

 

FOTS: fiber-optics transmission system

 

FPGA: field-programmable gate array. Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

 

fps: frames per second. Don't spell this out in Computer Graphics and Applications when the context is obvious.

 

fractions: Use slash notation (1/1000) for a general, rounded-off measurement; use decimals (0.001) for a specific, precise measurement. See the Numbers and Symbols section and appropriate sections in CMS.

 

frame buffer (n)

 

Free Software Foundation: supports GNU Linux

 

front end (n): usually refers to a small computer that serves as an interface between the host system and its peripherals

 

front-end (adj): as in front-end processing

 

FSM: finite-state machine

 

FTAM: file transfer and management

*

FTP: File Transfer Protocol

 

full-scale (adj)

 

full-screen (adj)

 

Futurebus (n): IEEE Standard 896 bus

 

fuzzy set (n), fuzzy-set (adj)