IEEE Computer Society - Keywords

  
Detailed taxonomy structure
  1. General Literature
    1. General
      1. Biographies/Autobiographies
      2. Conference Proceedings
      3. General Literary Works
    2. Introductory and Survey
    3. Reference
    4. Miscellaneous
  2. Hardware
    1. General
    2. Control Structures and Microprogramming
      1. General
      2. Control Design Styles
        1. Hardwired control
        2. Microprogrammed logic arrays
        3. Writable control store
      3. Control Structure Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        1. Automatic synthesis
        2. Formal models
        3. Simulation
      4. Control Structure Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        1. Diagnostics
        2. Error-checking
        3. Redundant design
        4. Test generation
      5. Microprogram Design Aids
        1. Firmware engineering
        2. Languages and compilers
        3. Machine-independent microcode generation
        4. Optimization
        5. Verification
      6. Microcode Applications
        1. Direct data manipulation
        2. Firmware support of operating systems/instruction sets
        3. Instruction set interpretation
        4. Peripheral control
        5. Special-purpose
      7. Miscellaneous
        1. Emerging technologies
    3. Arithmetic and Logic Structures
      1. General
      2. Design Styles
        1. Calculator
        2. Parallel
        3. Pipeline
        4. Multiple valued logic
      3. Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        1. Simulation
        2. Verification
        3. Worst-case analysis
      4. Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        1. Diagnostics
        2. Error-checking
        3. Redundant design
        4. Test generation
      5. High-Speed Arithmetic
        1. Algorithms
        2. Cost/performance
      6. Miscellaneous
    4. Memory Structures
      1. General
      2. Semiconductor Memories
        1. DRAM
        2. ROM
        3. SRAM
      3. Design Styles
        1. Associative memories
        2. Cache memories
        3. Interleaved memories
        4. Mass storage
        5. Primary memory
        6. Sequential-access memory
        7. Shared memory
        8. Virtual memory
      4. Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        1. Formal models
        2. Simulation
        3. Worst-case analysis
      5. Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        1. Diagnostics
        2. Error-checking
        3. Redundant design
        4. Test generation
      6. Miscellaneous
    5. I/O and Data Communications
      1. General
      2. Data Communications Devices
        1. Processors
        2. Receivers
        3. Transmitters
      3. Input/Output Devices
        1. Channels and controllers
        2. Data terminals and printers
        3. Image display
        4. Voice
      4. Interconnections (Subsystems)
        1. Asynchronous/synchronous operation
        2. Fiber optics
        3. Interfaces
        4. Parallel I/O
        5. Physical structures
        6. Topology
        7. Web technologies
        8. Wireless systems
      5. Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        1. Formal models
        2. Simulation
        3. Verification
        4. Worst-case analysis
      6. Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        1. Built-in tests
        2. Diagnostics
        3. Error-checking
        4. Hardware reliability
        5. Redundant design
        6. Test generation
      7. Miscellaneous
    6. Register-Transfer-Level Implementation
      1. General
      2. Design
        1. Arithmetic and logic units
        2. Control design
        3. Data-path design
        4. Memory design
        5. Styles
      3. Design Aids
        1. Automatic synthesis
        2. Hardware description languages
        3. Optimization
        4. Simulation
        5. Verification
      4. Reliability and Testing
        1. Built-in tests
        2. Error-checking
        3. Redundant design
        4. Test generation
        5. Testability
      5. Miscellaneous
    7. Logic Design
      1. General
      2. Design Styles
        1. Cellular arrays and automata
        2. Combinational logic
        3. Logic arrays
        4. Memory control and access
        5. Memory used as logic
        6. Parallel circuits
        7. Sequential circuits
      3. Reliability and Testing
        1. Built-in tests
        2. Error-checking
        3. Redundant design
        4. Test generation
        5. Testability
      4. Design Aids
        1. Automatic synthesis
        2. Hardware description languages
        3. Optimization
        4. Simulation
        5. Switching theory
        6. Verification
      5. Miscellaneous
    8. Integrated Circuits
      1. General
      2. Types and Design Styles
        1. Advanced technologies
        2. Algorithms implemented in hardware
        3. Gate arrays
        4. Input/output circuits
        5. Memory technologies
        6. Microprocessors and microcomputers
        7. Network connectivity chips
        8. Standard cells
        9. VLSI
      3. Design Aids
        1. Graphics
        2. Layout
        3. Placement and routing
        4. Simulation
        5. Verification
      4. Reliability and Testing
        1. Built-in tests
        2. Error-checking
        3. Fault injection
        4. Redundant design
        5. Test generation
        6. Testability
      5. Miscellaneous
    9. Performance and Reliability
      1. General
      2. Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
      3. Performance Analysis and Design Aids
      4. Miscellaneous
    10. Power Management
      1. Low-power design
      2. Energy-aware systems
    11. Miscellaneous
      1. Design management
  3. Computer Systems Organization
    1. General
      1. Emerging technologies
      2. Hardware/software interfaces
      3. Instruction set design
      4. Modeling of computer architecture
      5. System architectures, integration and modeling
      6. Systems specification methodology
    2. Processor Architectures
      1. General
      2. Single Data Stream Architectures
        1. MISD processors
        2. Pipeline processors
        3. RISC/CISC, VLIW architectures
        4. SISD processors
        5. Von Neumann architectures
      3. Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors)
        1. Array and vector processors
        2. Associative processors
        3. Connection machines
        4. Interconnection architectures
        5. Load balancing and task assignment
        6. MIMD processors
        7. Parallel processors
        8. Pipeline processors
        9. TC scheduling and synchronization
        10. SIMD processors
      4. Other Architecture Styles
        1. Adaptable architectures
        2. Analog computers
        3. Capability architectures
        4. Cellular architecture
        5. Dataflow architectures
        6. Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems
        7. High-level language architectures
        8. Multithreaded processors
        9. Neural nets
        10. Neurocomputers
        11. Pipeline processors
        12. Stack-oriented processors
      5. Parallel Architectures
        1. Distributed architectures
        2. Mobile processors
        3. Real-time distributed
        4. Scheduling and task partitioning
      6. Miscellaneous
        1. Analog computers
        2. Hybrid systems
    3. Communication/Networking and Information Technology
      1. General
        1. Architecture
        2. Data communications
        3. Emerging technologies
        4. Infrastructure protection
        5. Interprocessor communications
        6. Network-level security and protection
        7. OSI reference model
        8. Standards
      2. Network Architecture and Design
        1. ATM
        2. Centralized networks
        3. Circuit-switching networks
        4. Distributed networks
        5. Frame relay networks
        6. ISDN
        7. Network communications
        8. Network topology
        9. Packet-switching networks
        10. Store and forward networks
        11. Wireless communication
      3. Network Protocols
        1. Applications
        2. Protocol architecture
        3. Protocol verification
        4. Routing protocols
      4. Network Operations
        1. Network management
        2. Network monitoring
        3. Public networks
      5. Distributed Systems
        1. Client/server
        2. Distributed applications
        3. Distributed databases
        4. Network operating systems
      6. Local-Area Networks
        1. Access schemes
        2. Buses
        3. Ethernet
        4. High-speed
        5. Internet
        6. Token rings
      7. Internetworking
        1. Bridges
        2. Gateways
        3. Multicast
        4. Protocols
        5. Routers
        6. Standards
      8. Wide-area networks
        1. CATV
        2. Optical fiber
        3. Sensor networks
        4. Telephony
        5. Wireless
      9. Mobile Computing
        1. Algorithm/protocol design and analysis
        2. Architectures
        3. Mobile communication systems
        4. Mobile environments
        5. Support services
      10. Miscellaneous
    4. Special-Purpose and Application-Based Systems
      1. Application studies resulting in better multiple-processor systems
      2. Microprocessor/microcomputer applications
      3. Process control systems
      4. Real-time and embedded systems
      5. Reconfigurable hardware
      6. Signal processing systems
      7. Smartcards
      8. Ubiquitous computing
    5. Performance of Systems
      1. Design studies
      2. Fault tolerance
      3. Measurement techniques
      4. Modeling techniques
      5. Performance attributes
      6. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
      7. Measurement, evaluation, modeling, simulation of multiple-processor systems
    6. Computer System Implementation
      1. General
      2. Large and Medium ("Mainframe")
        1. Super (very large) computers
      3. Minicomputers
      4. Microcomputers
        1. Microprocessors
        2. Personal computers
        3. Portable devices
        4. Workstations
      5. VLSI Systems
        1. Impact of VLSI on system design
      6. Servers
        1. Web server
        2. Web browser
      7. Multiprocessor Systems
      8. Wearable Computers
      9. Miscellaneous
  4. Software/Software Engineering
    1. General
    2. Programming Techniques
      1. General
      2. Applicative (Functional) Programming
      3. Automatic Programming
      4. Concurrent Programming
      5. Sequential Programming
      6. Object-Oriented Programming
      7. Logic Programming
      8. Visual Programming
      9. Distributed programming
      10. Miscellaneous
    3. Software Engineering
      1. General
        1. Protection mechanisms
        2. Software psychology
        3. Software engineering for Internet projects
        4. Standards
        5. Surveys of historical development of one particular area
      2. Requirements/Specifications
        1. Analysis
        2. Elicitation methods
        3. Languages
        4. Management
        5. Methodologies
        6. Process
        7. Specification
        8. Tools
        9. Validation
      3. Design Tools and Techniques
        1. CASE
        2. Decision tables
        3. Distributed/Internet based software engineering tools and techniques
        4. Modules and interfaces
        5. Programmer workbench
      4. Coding Tools and Techniques
        1. Object-oriented programming
        2. Pretty printers
        3. Program editors
        4. Reentrant code
        5. Standards
        6. Structured programming
        7. Top-down programming
      5. Software/Program Verification
        1. Assertion checkers, assertion languages, performance
        2. Class invariants
        3. Correctness proofs
        4. Formal methods
        5. Model checking
        6. Programming by contract
        7. Reliability
        8. Statistical methods
        9. Validation
      6. Testing and Debugging
        1. Code inspections and walkthroughs
        2. Debugging aids
        3. Diagnostics
        4. Distributed debugging
        5. Dumps
        6. Error handling and recovery
        7. Monitors
        8. Reliability
        9. Symbolic execution
        10. Test levels
        11. Testing strategies
        12. Test design
        13. Test coverage of code
        14. Test coverage of specifications
        15. Test execution
        16. Test documentation
        17. Test management
        18. Testing tools
        19. Tracing
        20. Usability testing
      7. Programming Environments/Construction Tools
        1. Environments for multiple-processor systems
        2. Graphical environments
        3. Integrated environments
        4. Interactive environments
        5. Programmer workbench
      8. Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement
        1. Conversion from sequential to parallel forms
        2. Corrections
        3. Documentation
        4. Enhancement
        5. Evolving Internet applications
        6. Extensibility
        7. Maintainability
        8. Maintenance management
        9. Maintenance measurement
        10. Maintenance planning
        11. Maintenance process
        12. Portability
        13. Restructuring, reverse engineering, and reengineering
        14. Version control
      9. Metrics/Measurement
        1. Complexity measures
        2. Performance measures
        3. Process metrics
        4. Product metrics
        5. Software science
      10. Management
        1. Copyrights
        2. Cost estimation
        3. Enactment
        4. Initiation and scope definition
        5. Organizational management and coordination
        6. Planning
        7. Postclosure activities
        8. Productivity
        9. Programming teams
        10. Project close out
        11. Project control & modeling
        12. Review and evaluation
        13. Risk management
        14. Schedule and organizational issues
        15. Software acquisition
        16. Time estimation
      11. Design
        1. Design concepts
        2. Design notations and documentation
        3. Representation
        4. State diagrams
        5. Evolutionary prototyping
        6. Methodologies
        7. Object-oriented design methods
        8. Quality analysis and evaluation
        9. Rapid prototyping
        10. Representation
      12. Software Architectures
        1. Data abstraction
        2. Domain-specific architectures
        3. Information hiding
        4. Languages
        5. Patterns
      13. Interoperability
        1. Data mapping
        2. Distributed objects
        3. Interface definition languages
      14. Reusable Software
        1. Domain engineering
        2. Reusable libraries
        3. Reuse models
      15. Human Factors in Software Design
        1. User interfaces
      16. Software and System Safety
      17. Configuration Management
        1. Configuration auditing
        2. Configuration control
        3. Configuration identification
        4. Configuration management process
        5. Configuration status accounting
        6. Software release management and delivery
      18. Software Construction
        1. Construction planning
        2. Code design
        3. Code tuning
        4. Data design and management
        5. Error processing
        6. Source code organization
        7. Code documentation
        8. Construction QA
        9. Programming paradigms
        10. System integration and implementation
      19. Software Engineering Process
        1. Life cycle
        2. Process infrastructure
        3. Process measurement
        4. Process definition
        5. Software process models
        6. Qualitative process analysis
        7. Process implementation and change
      20. Software Quality/SQA
        1. Quality concepts
        2. Planning for SQA and V&V
        3. Methods for SQA and V&V
        4. Measurement applied to SQA and V&V
      21. Miscellaneous
        1. Software libraries
        2. System issues
    4. Programming Languages
      1. General
        1. Standards
      2. Formal Definitions and Theory
        1. Semantics
        2. Syntax
      3. Language Classifications
        1. Applicative (functional) languages
        2. Componentware
        3. Compression technologies
        4. Concurrent, distributed, and parallel languages
        5. Constraint and logic languages
        6. Dataflow languages
        7. Design languages
        8. Development tools
        9. Extensible languages
        10. Java
        11. Macro and assembly languages
        12. Microprogramming languages
        13. Multiparadigm languages
        14. Nondeterministic languages
        15. Nonprocedural languages
        16. Object-oriented languages
        17. Query languages
        18. Scripting languages
        19. Specialized application languages
        20. Very high-level languages
      4. Language Constructs and Features
        1. Abstract data types
        2. Classes and objects
        3. Concurrent programming structures
        4. Constraints
        5. Control structures
        6. Coroutines
        7. Data types and structures
        8. Distributed objects, components, containers
        9. Dynamic storage management
        10. Frameworks
        11. Inheritance
        12. Input/output
        13. Modules, packages
        14. Patterns
        15. Polymorphism
        16. Procedures, functions, and subroutines
        17. Recursion
      5. Processors
        1. Code generation
        2. Compilers
        3. Debuggers
        4. Incremental compilers
        5. Interpreters
        6. Memory management
        7. Optimization
        8. Parsing
        9. Preprocessors
        10. Retargetable compilers
        11. Runtime environments
        12. Translator writing systems and compile
      6. Miscellaneous
    5. Operating Systems
      1. General
      2. Process Management
        1. Concurrency
        2. Deadlocks
        3. Multiprocessing/multiprogramming/multitasking
        4. Mutual exclusion
        5. Scheduling
        6. Synchronization
        7. Threads
      3. Storage Management
        1. Allocation/deallocation strategies
        2. Distributed memories
        3. Garbage collection
        4. Main memory
        5. Secondary storage
        6. Segmentation
        7. Storage hierarchies
        8. Swapping
        9. Virtual memory
      4. File Systems Management
        1. Access methods
        2. Directory structures
        3. Distributed file systems
        4. File organization
        5. Maintenance
      5. Communications Management
        1. Buffering
        2. Input/output
        3. Message sending
        4. Network communication
        5. Terminal management
      6. Reliability
        1. Backup procedures
        2. Checkpoint/restart
        3. Disconnected operation
        4. Fault-tolerance
        5. High availability
        6. Verification
      7. Security and Privacy Protection
        1. Access controls
        2. Authentication
        3. Cryptographic controls
        4. Information flow controls
        5. Invasive software
        6. Security kernels
        7. Verification
      8. Organization and Design
        1. Batch processing systems
        2. Distributed systems
        3. Hierarchical design
        4. Interactive systems
        5. Real-time systems and embedded systems
        6. Parallel systems
      9. Performance
        1. Measurements
        2. Modeling and prediction
        3. Monitors
        4. Operational analysis
        5. Queuing theory
        6. Simulation
        7. Stochastic analysis
      10. Systems Programs and Utilities
        1. Command and control languages
        2. Linkers
        3. Loaders
        4. Window managers
      11. Support for Adaptation
        1. Application-aware adaptation
        2. Application-transparent adaptation
        3. Fidelity, agility, and stability
        4. Low-bandwidth operation
        5. Transcoding
      12. Miscellaneous
  5. Data
    1. General
      1. Data communications aspects
      2. Data dependencies
      3. Data encryption
      4. File organization
      5. Knowledge and data engineering tools and techniques
      6. System applications and experience
    2. Data Structures
      1. Arrays
      2. Distributed data structures
      3. Distributed file systems
      4. Graphs and networks
      5. Lists, stacks, and queues
      6. Records
      7. Tables
      8. Trees
    3. Data Storage Representations
      1. Composite structures
      2. Contiguous representations
      3. Hash-table representations
      4. Linked representations
      5. Object representation
      6. Primitive data items
    4. Data Encryption
      1. Code breaking
      2. DES
      3. Public key cryptosystems
      4. Standards
    5. Coding and Information Theory
      1. Data compaction and compression
      2. Error control codes
      3. Normal models of communication
      4. Nonsecret encoding schemes
    6. Files
      1. Backup/recovery
      2. Optimization
      3. Organization/structure
      4. Sorting/searching
    7. Miscellaneous
  6. Theory of Computation
    1. General
    2. Computation by Abstract Devices
      1. General
      2. Models of Computation
        1. Automata
        2. Bounded-action devices
        3. Computability theory
        4. Relations between models
        5. Self-modifying machines
        6. Unbounded-action devices
      3. Modes of Computation
        1. Alternation and nondeterminism
        2. Interactive and reactive computation
        3. Online computation
        4. Parallelism and concurrency
        5. Probabilistic computation
        6. Relations among modes
        7. Relativized computation
      4. Complexity Measures and Classes
        1. Complexity hierarchies
        2. Machine-independent complexity
        3. Reducibility and completeness
        4. Relations among complexity classes
        5. Relations among complexity measures
      5. Miscellaneous
    3. Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity
      1. General
      2. Numerical Algorithms and Problems
        1. Computation of transforms
        2. Computations in finite fields
        3. Computations on matrices
        4. Computations on polynomials
        5. Number-theoretic computations
      3. Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems
        1. Complexity of proof procedures
        2. Computations on discrete structures
        3. Geometrical problems and computations
        4. Pattern matching
        5. Routing and layout
        6. Sequencing and scheduling
      4. Sorting and searching
      5. Miscellaneous
    4. Logics and Meanings of Programs
      1. General
      2. Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs
        1. Assertions
        2. Invariants
        3. Logics of programs
        4. Mechanical verification
        5. Pre- and post-conditions
        6. Specification techniques
      3. Semantics of Programming Languages
        1. Algebraic approaches to semantics
        2. Denotational semantics
        3. Operational semantics
        4. Partial evaluation
        5. Process models
        6. Program analysis
      4. Studies of Program Constructs
        1. Control primitives
        2. Functional constructs
        3. Object-oriented constructs
        4. Program and recursion schemes
        5. Type structure
      5. Miscellaneous
    5. Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages
      1. General
      2. Mathematical Logic
        1. Computability theory
        2. Computational logic
        3. Lambda calculus and related systems
        4. Logic and constraint programming
        5. Mechanical theorem proving
        6. Modal logic
        7. Model theory
        8. Proof theory
        9. Recursive function theory
        10. Set theory
        11. Temporal logic
      3. Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems
        1. Decision problems
        2. Grammar types
        3. Parallel rewriting systems
        4. Parsing
        5. Thue systems
      4. Formal Languages
        1. Algebraic language theory
        2. Classes defined by grammars or automata
        3. Classes defined by resource-bounded automata
        4. Decision problems
        5. Operations on languages
      5. Miscellaneous
    6. Miscellaneous
  7. Mathematics of Computing
    1. General
    2. Numerical Analysis
      1. General
        1. Computer arithmetic
        2. Conditioning and ill-conditioning
        3. Error analysis
        4. Interval arithmetic
        5. Multiple precision arithmetic
        6. Numerical algorithms
        7. Parallel algorithms
        8. Stability and instability
      2. Interpolation
        1. Difference formulas
        2. Extrapolation
        3. Interpolation formulas
        4. Smoothing
        5. Spline and piecewise polynomial interpolation
      3. Approximation
        1. Approximation of surfaces and contours
        2. Chebyshev approximation and theory
        3. Elementary function approximation
        4. Fast Fourier transforms
        5. Least squares approximation
        6. Linear approximation
        7. Minimax approximation and algorithms
        8. Nonlinear approximation
        9. Rational approximation
        10. Special function approximations
        11. Spline and piecewise polynomial approximation
        12. Wavelets and fractals
      4. Numerical Linear Algebra
        1. Conditioning
        2. Determinants
        3. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
        4. Error analysis
        5. Linear systems
        6. Matrix inversion
        7. Pseudoinverses
        8. Singular value decomposition
        9. Sparse, structured, and very large systems
      5. Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation
        1. Adaptive and iterative quadrature
        2. Automatic differentiation
        3. Equal interval integration
        4. Error analysis
        5. Finite difference methods
        6. Gaussian quadrature
        7. Iterative methods
        8. Multidimensional (multiple) quadrature
      6. Roots of Nonlinear Equations
        1. Continuation (homotopy) methods
        2. Convergence
        3. Error analysis
        4. Iterative methods
        5. Polynomials, methods for
        6. Systems of equations
      7. Optimization
        1. Constrained optimization
        2. Convex programming
        3. Global optimization
        4. Gradient methods
        5. Inter programming
        6. Least squares methods
        7. Linear programming
        8. Nonlinear programming
        9. Quadratic programming methods
        10. Simulated annealing
        11. Stochastic programming
        12. Unconstrained optimization
      8. Ordinary Differential Equations
        1. Boundary value problems
        2. Chaotic systems
        3. Convergence and stability
        4. Differential-algebraic equations
        5. Error analysis
        6. Finite difference methods
        7. Initial value problems
        8. Multistep and multivalue methods
        9. One-step (single step) methods
        10. Stiff equations
      9. Partial Differential Equations
        1. Domain decomposition methods
        2. Elliptic equations
        3. Finite difference methods
        4. Finite element methods
        5. Finite volume methods
        6. Hyperbolic equations
        7. Inverse problems
        8. Iterative solution techniques
        9. Method of lines
        10. Multigrid and multilevel methods
        11. Parabolic equations
        12. Spectral methods
      10. Integral Equations
        1. Delay equations
        2. Fredholm equation
        3. Intro-differential equations
        4. Volterra equations
      11. Applications
      12. Miscellaneous
    3. Discrete Mathematics
      1. General
      2. Combinatorics
        1. Combinatorial algorithms
        2. Counting problems
        3. Generating functions
        4. Permutations and combinations
        5. Recurrences and difference equations
      3. Graph Theory
        1. Graph algorithms
        2. Graph labeling
        3. Hypergraphs
        4. Network problems
        5. Path and circuit problems
        6. Trees
      4. Applications
      5. Miscellaneous
    4. Probability and Statistics
      1. Contingency table analysis
      2. Correlation and regression analysis
      3. Distribution functions
      4. Experimental design
      5. Markov processes
      6. Multivariate statistics
      7. Nonparametric statistics
      8. Probabilistic algorithms
      9. Queuing theory
      10. Random number generation
      11. Reliability and life testing
      12. Renewal theory
      13. Robust regression
      14. Statistical computing
      15. Statistical software
      16. Stochastic processes
      17. Survival analysis
      18. Time series analysis
    5. Mathematical Software
      1. Algorithm design and analysis
      2. Certification and testing
      3. Documentation
      4. Efficiency
      5. Parallel and vector implementations
      6. Portability
      7. Reliability and robustness
      8. User interfaces
      9. Verification
    6. Miscellaneous
      1. Queuing theory
  8. Information Technology and Systems
    1. General
      1. Infrastructure Protection
    2. Models and Principles
      1. General
      2. Systems and Information Theory
        1. General systems theory
        2. Information theory
        3. Value of information
      3. User/Machine Systems
        1. Human factors
        2. Human-centered computing
        3. Human information processing
        4. Software psychology
      4. Miscellaneous
    3. Database Management
      1. General
        1. Security, integrity, and protection
        2. Database design, modeling and management
        3. Query design and implementation languages
      2. Logical Design
        1. Data models
        2. Database architectures
        3. Database integration
        4. Database models
        5. Normal forms
        6. Schema and subschema
      3. Physical Design
        1. Access methods
        2. Deadlock avoidance
        3. Indexing methods
        4. Physical database design prototypes
        5. Recovery and restart
      4. Languages
        1. Data description languages
        2. Data manipulation languages
        3. Database (persistent) programming languages
        4. Database semantics
        5. Query languages
        6. Report writers
      5. Systems
        1. Active databases
        2. Buffer management
        3. Concurrency
        4. Distributed databases
        5. Multimedia databases
        6. Object-oriented databases
        7. Parallel databases
        8. Query processing
        9. Relational database
        10. Rule-based databases
        11. Spatial databases
        12. Statistical databases
        13. Temporal databases
        14. Textual databases
        15. Transaction processing
        16. Workflow management
      6. Heterogeneous Databases
        1. Data translation
        2. Program translation
      7. Database Machines
      8. Database Administration
        1. Data dictionary/directory
        2. Data warehouse and repository
        3. Logging and recovery
        4. Security, integrity, and protection
      9. Database Applications
        1. Bioinformatics (genome or protein) databases
        2. Clustering, classification, and association rules
        3. Data and knowledge visualization
        4. Data mining
        5. Feature extraction or construction
        6. Knowledge management applications
        7. Image databases
        8. Interactive data exploration and discovery
        9. Mining methods and algorithms
        10. Modeling structured, textual and multimedia data
        11. Personalization
        12. Text mining
        13. Web mining
        14. Scientific databases
        15. Spatial databases and GIS
        16. Statistical databases
      10. Miscellaneous
    4. Information Storage and Retrieval
      1. General
        1. Web Search
      2. Context Analysis and Indexing
        1. Abstracting methods
        2. Dictionaries
        3. Indexing methods
        4. Linguistic processing
        5. Thesauruses
      3. Information Storage
        1. Document/file management
        2. File organization
        3. Record classification
        4. Storage/repositories
      4. Information Search and Retrieval
        1. Clustering
        2. Information filtering
        3. Internet search
        4. Metadata
        5. Query formulation
        6. Relevance feedback
        7. Retrieval models
        8. Search process
        9. Selection process
      5. Systems and Software
        1. Current awareness systems
        2. Distributed systems
        3. Information networks
        4. Performance evaluation
        5. Question-answering systems
        6. User profiles and alert services
      6. Online Information Services
        1. Commercial services
        2. Data sharing
        3. DOM
        4. HTML/DHTML CSS
        5. Web-based services
        6. XML/XSL/RDF
      7. Library Automation
        1. Large text archives
      8. Digital Libraries
        1. Collection
        2. Dissemination
        3. Standards
        4. Systems issues
        5. User issues
      9. Miscellaneous
    5. Information Technology and Systems Applications
      1. General
      2. Office Automation
        1. Desktop publishing
        2. Equipment
        3. Groupware
        4. Spreadsheets
        5. Time management
        6. Word processing
        7. Workflow management
      3. Types of Systems
        1. Decision support
        2. Logistics
      4. Communications Applications
        1. Bulletin boards
        2. Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing
        3. Electronic mail
        4. Information browsers
        5. Videotex
      5. Miscellaneous
    6. Information Interfaces and Representation (HCI)
      1. General
      2. Multimedia Information Systems
        1. Animations
        2. Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities
        3. Audio input/output
        4. Evaluation/methodology
        5. Hypertext navigation and maps
        6. Image/video retrieval
        7. Video
      3. User Interfaces
        1. Auditory (non-speech) feedback
        2. Benchmarking
        3. Design for wearability
        4. Ergonomics
        5. Evaluation/methodology
        6. Graphical user interfaces
        7. Haptic I/O
        8. Input devices and strategies
        9. Interaction styles
        10. Natural language
        11. Prototyping
        12. Screen design
        13. Standardization
        14. Style guides
        15. Theory and methods
        16. Training, help, and documentation
        17. User-centered design
        18. User interface management systems
        19. Vision I/O
        20. Voice I/O
        21. Windowing systems
      4. Group and Organization Interfaces
        1. Asynchronous interaction
        2. Collaborative computing
        3. Computer-supported cooperative work
        4. Evaluation/methodology
        5. Organizational design
        6. Synchronous interaction
        7. Theory and models
        8. Web-based interaction
      5. Hypertext/Hypermedia
        1. Architectures
        2. Navigation
        3. Theory
        4. User issues
      6. Sound and Music Computing
        1. Methodologies and techniques
        2. Modeling
        3. Signal analysis, synthesis, and processing
        4. Systems
      7. Miscellaneous
    7. Miscellaneous
  9. Computing Methodologies
    1. General
    2. Symbolic and algebraic manipulation
      1. General
      2. Expressions and Their Representation
        1. Representations
        2. Simplification of expressions
      3. Algorithms
        1. Algebraic algorithms
        2. Algorithms for data and knowledge management
        3. Analysis of algorithms
        4. Nonalgebraic algorithms
        5. Performance evaluation of algorithms and systems
      4. Languages and Systems
        1. Evaluation strategies
        2. Nonprocedural languages
        3. Special-purpose algebraic systems
        4. Special-purpose hardware
        5. Substitution mechanisms
      5. Applications
      6. Miscellaneous
    3. Artificial Intelligence
      1. General
        1. Cognitive simulation
        2. Philosophical foundations
      2. Applications and Expert Knowledge-Intensive Systems
        1. Cartography
        2. Computer vision
        3. Decision support
        4. Education
        5. Environment
        6. Games and infotainment
        7. Industrial automation
        8. Law
        9. Mathematics
        10. Medicine and science
        11. Military
        12. Natural language interfaces
        13. Office automation
        14. Space
        15. Transportation
      3. Automatic Programming
        1. Automatic analysis of algorithms
        2. Program modification
        3. Program synthesis
        4. Program transformation
        5. Program verification
      4. Deduction and Theorem Proving and Knowledge Processing
        1. Answer/reason extraction
        2. Constraint-based processing
        3. Deduction
        4. Inference engines
        5. Logic processing
        6. Logic programming
        7. Mathematical induction
        8. Metatheory
        9. Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision
        10. Resolution
        11. Rule-based processing
        12. Uncertainty, "fuzzy," and probabilistic reasoning
      5. Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods
        1. Agent communication languages
        2. Distributed representations
        3. Frames and scripts
        4. Knowledge base management
        5. Knowledge base verification
        6. Modal logic
        7. Predicate logic
        8. Relation systems
        9. Representation languages
        10. Representations (procedural and rule-based)
        11. Semantic networks
        12. Storage mechanisms
        13. Temporal logic
      6. Programming Languages and Software
        1. Expert and knowledge-intensive system tools and techniques
      7. Learning
        1. Analogies
        2. Concept learning
        3. Connectionism and neural nets
        4. Heuristics design
        5. Induction
        6. Knowledge acquisition
        7. Machine learning
        8. Language acquisition
        9. Parameter learning
      8. Natural Language Processing
        1. Discourse
        2. Language generation
        3. Language models
        4. Language parsing and understanding
        5. Language summarization
        6. Machine translation
        7. Speech recognition and synthesis
        8. Text analysis
        9. Web text analysis
      9. Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search
        1. Backtracking
        2. Constraint satisfaction
        3. Control theory
        4. Dynamic programming
        5. Graph and tree search strategies
        6. Heuristic methods
        7. Plan execution, formation, and generation
        8. Scheduling
      10. Robotics
        1. Autonomous vehicles
        2. Biorobotics
        3. Commercial robots and applications
        4. Kinematics and dynamics
        5. Manipulators
        6. Nanorobots
        7. Neuromorphic computing
        8. Operator interfaces
        9. Propelling mechanisms
        10. Sensors
        11. Workcell organization and planning
        12. Vision
      11. Vision and Scene Understanding
        1. 3D/stereo scene analysis
        2. Architecture and control structures
        3. Intensity, color, photometry, and thresholding
        4. Modeling and recovery of physical attributes
        5. Motion
        6. Perceptual reasoning
        7. Representations, data structures, and transforms
        8. Shape
        9. Texture
        10. Video analysis
      12. Distributed Artificial Intelligence
        1. Coherence and coordination
        2. Intelligent agents
        3. Languages and structures
        4. Multiagent systems
      13. Intelligent Web Services and Semantic Web
        1. Intelligent Web service languages
        2. Internet reasoning services
        3. Ontology design
        4. Ontology languages
      14. Knowledge Management
        1. Knowledge acquisition
        2. Knowledge engineering methodologies
        3. Knowledge life cycles
        4. Knowledge maintenance
        5. Knowledge modeling
        6. Knowledge personalization and customization
        7. Knowledge publishing
        8. Knowledge retrieval
        9. Knowledge reuse
        10. Knowledge valuation
      15. Miscellaneous
        1. Adaptive hypermedia
        2. Computational neuroscience
        3. Evolutionary computing and genetic algorithms
        4. Wearable AI
    4. Computer Graphics
      1. General
      2. Hardware Architecture
        1. Graphics processors
        2. Hardcopy devices
        3. Input devices
        4. Parallel processing
        5. Raster display devices
        6. Storage devices
        7. Three-dimensional displays
        8. Vector display devices
      3. Graphics Systems
        1. Distributed/network graphics
        2. Remote systems
        3. Stand-alone systems
      4. Picture/Image Generation
        1. Antialiasing
        2. Bitmap and frame buffer operations
        3. Digitizing and scanning
        4. Display algorithms
        5. Image-based rendering
        6. Line and curve generation
        7. Viewing algorithms
      5. Graphics Utilities
        1. Application packages
        2. Device drivers
        3. Graphics editors
        4. Graphics packages
        5. Meta files
        6. Paint systems
        7. Picture description languages
        8. Software support
        9. Virtual device interfaces
      6. Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
        1. Boundary representations
        2. Constructive solid geometry
        3. Curve, surface, solid, and object representations
        4. Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems
        5. Hierarchy and geometric transformations
        6. Modeling packages
        7. Modeling from video
        8. Object hierarchies
        9. Physically based modeling
        10. Splines
      7. Methodology and Techniques
        1. Device independence
        2. Ergonomics
        3. Graphics data structures and data types
        4. Interaction techniques
        5. Languages
        6. Standards
      8. Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
        1. Animation
        2. Color, shading, shadowing, and texture
        3. Fractals
        4. Hidden line/surface removal
        5. Radiosity
        6. Raytracing
        7. Virtual reality
        8. Visible line/surface algorithms
      9. Applications
      10. Miscellaneous
    5. Image Processing and Computer Vision
      1. General
        1. Image displays
        2. Image processing software
      2. Digitization and Image Capture
        1. Camera calibration
        2. Imaging geometry
        3. Quantization
        4. Radiometry
        5. Reflectance
        6. Sampling
        7. Scanning
      3. Compression (Coding)
        1. Approximate methods
        2. Exact coding
        3. Model-based coding
        4. MP-4 and MP-7
        5. Video coding
      4. Enhancement
        1. Filtering
        2. Geometric correction
        3. Grayscale manipulation
        4. Registration
        5. Sharpening and deblurring
        6. Smoothing
      5. Restoration
        1. Inverse filtering
        2. Kalman filtering
        3. Pseudoinverse restoration
        4. Wiener filtering
      6. Reconstruction
        1. Series expansion methods
        2. Summation methods
        3. Transform methods
      7. Segmentation
        1. Edge and feature detection
        2. Graph-theoretic methods
        3. Markov random fields
        4. Pixel classification
        5. Region growing, partitioning
        6. Relaxation
        7. Stochastic methods
      8. Feature Measurement
        1. Feature representation
        2. Invariants
        3. Moments
        4. Projections
        5. Size and shape
        6. Texture
      9. Scene Analysis
        1. Color
        2. Depth cues
        3. Image models
        4. Motion
        5. Object recognition
        6. Photometry
        7. Range data
        8. Sensor fusion
        9. Shading
        10. Shape
        11. Stereo
        12. Surface fitting
        13. Time-varying imagery
        14. Tracking
      10. Applications
      11. Image Representation
        1. Hierarchical
        2. Morphological
        3. Multidimensional
        4. Statistical
        5. Volumetric
      12. Miscellaneous
    6. Pattern Recognition
      1. General
      2. Models
        1. Deterministic
        2. Fuzzy set
        3. Geometric
        4. Neural nets
        5. Statistical
        6. Structural
        7. Syntactic
      3. Design Methodology
        1. Classifier design and evaluation
        2. Feature evaluation and selection
        3. Pattern analysis
      4. Clustering
        1. Algorithms
        2. Similarity measures
      5. Applications
        1. Arts
        2. Computer vision
        3. Computational models of vision
        4. Face and gesture recognition
        5. Government
        6. Handwriting analysis
        7. Industry
        8. Medicine
        9. Military
        10. Remote sensing
        11. Robotics
        12. Sciences
        13. Signal processing
        14. Text processing
        15. Waveform analysis
      6. Implementation
        1. Interactive systems
        2. Real-time systems
        3. Special architectures
      7. Miscellaneous
    7. Simulation, Modeling, and Visualization
      1. General
      2. Simulation Theory
        1. Model classification
        2. Systems theory
        3. Types of simulation
      3. Simulation Languages
      4. Applications
      5. Model Validation and Analysis
      6. Model Development
        1. Modeling methodologies
      7. Simulation Output Analysis
      8. Simulation Support Systems
        1. Environments
      9. Types of Simulation
        1. Animation
        2. Combined
        3. Continuous
        4. Discrete event
        5. Distributed
        6. Gaming
        7. Monte Carlo
        8. Parallel
        9. Visual
      10. Visualization
        1. Applications
        2. Flow visualization
        3. Information visualization
        4. Multivariate visualization
        5. Visual programming and program visualization
        6. Visualization systems and software
        7. Visualization techniques and methodologies
        8. Volume visualization
      11. Miscellaneous
    8. Document and Text Processing
      1. General
      2. Document and Text Editing
        1. Document management
        2. Languages
        3. Spelling
        4. Version control
      3. Document Preparation
        1. Desktop publishing
        2. Format and notation
        3. Hypertext/hypermedia
        4. Index generation
        5. Languages and systems
        6. Markup languages
        7. Multi/mixed media
        8. Photocomposition/typesetting
        9. Scripting languages
        10. Standards
      4. Index Generation
      5. Electronic Publishing
      6. Document Capture
        1. Document analysis
        2. Document indexing
        3. Graphics recognition and interpretation
        4. Optical character recognition
        5. Scanning
      7. Miscellaneous
    9. Miscellaneous
  10. Computer Applications
    1. General
    2. Administrative Data Processing
      1. Business
      2. Education
      3. Financial
      4. Government
      5. Law
      6. Manufacturing
      7. Marketing
      8. Military
    3. Physical Sciences and Engineering
      1. Aerospace
      2. Archaeology
      3. Astronomy
      4. Chemistry
      5. Earth and atmospheric sciences
      6. Electronics
      7. Engineering
      8. Mathematics and statistics
      9. Physics
    4. Life and Medical Sciences
      1. Biology and genetics
      2. Health
      3. Medical information systems
    5. Social and Behavioral Sciences
      1. Economics
      2. Psychology
      3. Sociology
    6. Arts and Humanities
      1. Architecture
      2. Arts, fine and performing
      3. Fine arts
      4. Language translation
      5. Linguistics
      6. Literature
      7. Music
      8. Performing arts
    7. Computer-Aided Engineering
      1. Computer-aided design
      2. Computer-aided manufacturing
    8. Computers in Other Systems
      1. Command and control
      2. Consumer products
      3. Industrial control
      4. Military
      5. Process control
      6. Publishing
      7. Real time
    9. Internet Applications
      1. Client/server and multitier systems
      2. Databases
      3. Database connectivity
      4. Distributed file systems
      5. Electronic commerce
      6. Engineering design
      7. Games
      8. Health care
      9. Intranet/extranet/VPNs
      10. Libraries/information repositories/publishing
      11. Manufacturing
      12. Middleware/business logic
      13. Network repositories/data mining/backup
      14. Software engineering
      15. Traffic analysis
      16. Transaction software
      17. Web browsers
      18. Web servers
      19. Web site management/development tools
    10. Mobile Applications
      1. Location-dependent and sensitive
      2. Nomadic computing
      3. Multimedia applications and multimedia signal processing
      4. Pervasive computing
      5. Wearable computers and body area networks
      6. Wireless sensor networks
    11. Miscellaneous
  11. Computing Milieux
    1. General
    2. The Computer Industry
      1. Markets
      2. Standards
      3. Statistics
      4. Suppliers
    3. History of Computing
      1. Hardware
      2. People
      3. Software
      4. Systems
      5. Theory
    4. Computers and Education
      1. General
      2. Computer Uses in Education
        1. Collaborative learning
        2. Computer-assisted instruction
        3. Computer-managed instruction
        4. Distance learning
      3. Computer and Information Science Education
        1. Accreditation
        2. Computer science education
        3. Curriculum
        4. Information systems education
        5. Literacy
        6. Self-assessment
      4. Miscellaneous
        1. Accreditation
        2. Computer literacy
    5. Computers and Society
      1. General
      2. Public Policy Issues
        1. Abuse and crime involving computers
        2. Computer-related health issues
        3. Ethics
        4. Human safety
        5. Intellectual property rights
        6. Privacy
        7. Regulation
        8. Transborder data flow
        9. Use/abuse of power
      3. Social Issues
        1. Abuse and crime involving computers
        2. Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities
        3. Employment
        4. Handicapped persons/special needs
      4. Organizational Impacts
        1. Automation
        2. Computer-supported collaborative work
        3. Deployment, usage experience
        4. Employment
        5. Reengineering
        6. Scalability, maintainability
      5. Electronic Commerce
        1. Cybercash, digital cash
        2. Distributed commercial transactions
        3. Electronic data interchange
        4. Intellectual property
        5. Payment schemes
        6. Security
        7. Internet security policies
        8. Mobile code security
        9. Economic and other policies
      6. Miscellaneous
    6. Legal Aspects of Computing
      1. General
      2. Hardware/Software Protection
        1. Copyrights
        2. Licensing
        3. Patents
        4. Proprietary rights
        5. Trade secrets
      3. Governmental Issues
        1. Censorship
        2. Regulation
        3. Taxation
      4. Miscellaneous
        1. Contracts
        2. Hardware patents
    7. Management of Computing and Information Systems
      1. General
        1. Economics
        2. Information resource management
      2. Project and People Management
        1. Life cycle
        2. Management techniques
        3. Staffing
        4. Strategic information systems planning
        5. Systems analysis and design
        6. Systems development
        7. Training
      3. Installation Management
        1. Benchmarks
        2. Computer selection
        3. Computing equipment management
        4. Performance and usage measurement
        5. Pricing and resource allocation
      4. Software Management
        1. Software development
        2. Software maintenance
        3. Software process
        4. Software selection
      5. System Management
        1. Centralization/decentralization
        2. Management audit
        3. Quality assurance
      6. Security and Protection
        1. Authentication
        2. Insurance
        3. Invasive software (viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        4. Physical security
        5. Unauthorized access (hacking, phreaking)
      7. Miscellaneous
        1. Insurance
        2. Security
    8. The Computing Profession
      1. General
        1. Career Management
      2. Occupations
      3. Organizations
      4. Testing, Certification, and Licensing
      5. Professional Ethics
        1. Codes of ethics
        2. Codes of good practice
        3. Ethical dilemmas
      6. Miscellaneous
        1. Codes of good practice
        2. Ethics
    9. Personal Computing
      1. General
        1. Games
      2. Application Packages
        1. Data communications
        2. Database processing
        3. Freeware/shareware
        4. Graphics
        5. Spreadsheets
        6. Word processing
      3. Hardware
      4. Management/Maintenance
      5. Miscellaneous
    10. Miscellaneous
      1. Business
      2. Education
      3. Financial
      4. Healthcare
      5. Industrial
      6. IT Applications
      7. Legal
      8. Library
      9. Military
      10. Publishing
      11. Sports
This is an extended version of the ACM Computing Classification System

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