IEEE Transactions on Multi-Scale Computing Systems

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From the April-June 2017 issue

ARTEMIS: An Aging-Aware Runtime Application Mapping Framework for 3D NoC-Based Chip Multiprocessors

By Venkata Yaswanth Raparti, Nishit Kapadia, and Sudeep Pasricha

Featured article thumbnail imageIn emerging 3D NoC-based chip multiprocessors (CMPs), aging in circuits due to bias temperature instability (BTI) stress is expected to cause gate-delay degradation that, if left unchecked, can lead to untimely failure. Simultaneously, the effects of electromigration (EM) induced aging in the on-chip wires, especially those in the 3D power delivery network (PDN), are expected to notably reduce chip lifetime. A commonly proposed solution to mitigate circuit-slowdown due to aging is to hike the supply voltage; however, this increases current-densities in the PDN due to the increased power consumption on the die, which in turn expedites PDN-aging. We thus note that mechanisms to enhance lifetime reliability in 3D NoC-based CMPs must consider circuit-aging together with PDN-aging. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime framework (ARTEMIS) for intelligent dynamic application-mapping and voltage-scaling to simultaneously manage aging in circuits and the PDN, and enhance the performance and lifetime of 3D NoC-based CMPs. We also propose an aging-enabled routing algorithm that balances the degree of aging between NoC routers and cores, thereby increasing the combined lifetime of both. Our framework also considers dark-silicon power constraints that are becoming a major design challenge in scaled technologies, particularly for 3D stacked CMPs. Our experimental results indicate that ARTEMIS enables the execution of 25 percent more applications over the chip lifetime compared to state-of-the-art prior work.

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