The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - Sept.-Oct. (2012 vol.38)
pp: 1027-1039
Frank Zickert , Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt
Roman Beck , Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt
Determining how to cope with existing systems is an important issue for information systems development (ISD). In this paper, we investigate how well different ISD patterns are suited for coping with existing systems. Empirical results, gathered from three software development projects undertaken by a financial institution, suggest propositions regarding how ISD patterns and existing systems affect the characteristics of objective ISD complexity, which in turn determine overall experienced complexity. Existing systems increase complexity due to conflicting interdependencies, but ISD patterns that reduce this complexity, such as those that employ bottom-up or concurrent consideration patterns, are best suited for coping with existing systems. In contrast, top-down and iterative focusing patterns, as classically used in new development, increase the complexity associated with conflicting interdependency, which makes them particularly unsuited for coping with existing systems in ISD.
Complexity theory, Information systems, Maintenance engineering, Software maintenance, File systems, Programming, Servers, software engineering process, Complexity measures, improvements, software maintenance
Frank Zickert, Roman Beck, "Coping with Existing Systems in Information Systems Development", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.38, no. 5, pp. 1027-1039, Sept.-Oct. 2012, doi:10.1109/TSE.2011.89
[1] F. Cummins, Enterprise Integration: An Architecture for Enterprise Application and Systems Integration. John Wiley, 2002.
[2] K. Bennett and V. Rajlich, "Software Maintenance and Evolution: A Roadmap," Proc. Conf. The Future of Software Eng., pp. 73-87, 2000.
[3] M. Bergman, J. King, and K. Lyytinen, "Large Scale Requirements Analysis as Heterogeneous Engineering," Scandinavian J. Information Systems, vol. 14, pp. 37-55, 2002.
[4] W. Hasselbring, "Information System Integration," Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 33-38, 2000.
[5] M. Sawhney, "Don't Homogenize, Synchronize," Harvard Business Rev., vol. 79, pp. 100-108, 2001.
[6] J. McKeen and H. Smith, "New Developments in Practice II: Enterprise Application Integration," Comm. ACM, vol. 8, pp. 451-466, 2002.
[7] V. Basili and H. Rombach, "Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Reuse: A Reuse-Enabling Software Evolution Environment," Technical Report UMIACS-TR-88-92, Inst. for Advanced Computer Studies, Univ. of Maryland, 1988.
[8] R. Banker and S. Slaughter, "The Moderating Effects of Structure on Volatility and Complexity in Software Enhancement," Information Systems Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 219-240, 2000.
[9] V. Basili, "Viewing Maintenance as Reuse-Oriented Software Development," IEEE Software, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19-25, Jan. 1990.
[10] G. Canfora and A. Cimitile, "Software Maintenance," Handbook of Software Eng. and Knowledge Eng., S. Chang, ed., pp. 91-120, World Scientific Publishing, 2002.
[11] IEEE, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology/IEEE Std 610.12-1990, 1990.
[12] B. Lientz and B. Swanson, Software Maintenance Management Reading. Addison-Wesley, 1980.
[13] N. Chapin, J. Hale, K. Khan, J. Ramil, and W.-G. Tan, "Types of Software Evolution and Software Maintenance," J. Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3-30, 2001.
[14] J. Buckley, T. Mens, M. Zenger, A. Rashid, and G. Kniesel, "Towards a Taxonomy of Software Change," J. Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 309-332, 2003.
[15] T. Pigoski, Practical Software Maintenance—Best Practices for Managing Your Software Investment. John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[16] J. Nosek and P. Palvia, "Software Maintenance Management: Changes in the Last Decade," J. Software Maintenance: Research and Practice, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 157-174, 1990.
[17] K. Beck, Extreme Programming Explained. Addison Wesley, 2000.
[18] V. Rajlich and K. Bennett, "A Staged Model for the Software Lifecycle," Computer, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 66-71, July 2000.
[19] V. Rajlich, "Changing the Paradigm of Software Engineering," Comm. ACM, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 67-70, 2006.
[20] J. Espinosa, S. Slaughter, R. Kraut, and J. Herbsleb, "Familiarity, Complexity, and Team Performance in Geographically Distributed Software Development," Organization Science, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 613-630, 2007.
[21] D. Walz, J. Elam, and B. Curtis, "Inside a Software Design Team: Knowledge Acquisition, Sharing, and Integration," Comm. ACM, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 63-77, 1993.
[22] P. Goodman and D. Leyden, "Familiarity and Group Productivity," J. Applied Psychology, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 578-586, 1991.
[23] C. Krueger, "Software Reuse," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 131-183, 1992.
[24] J. Sametinger, Software Engineering with Reusable Components. Springer, 1997.
[25] H. Mili, F. Mili, and A. Mili, "Reusing Software: Issues and Research Directions," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 528-562, June 1995.
[26] W.B. Frakes and C. Terry, "Software Reuse: Metrics and Models," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 415-435, 1996.
[27] V. Basili, L. Briand, and W. Melo, "How Reuse Influences Productivity in Object-Oriented Systems," Comm. ACM, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 104-116, 1996.
[28] S. Gregor, "The Nature of Theory in Information System," MIS Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 611-642, 2006.
[29] M. Agrawal and K. Chari, "Software Effort, Quality, and Cycle Time: A Study of CMM Level 5 Projects," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 145-156, Mar. 2007.
[30] B. Anda, D. Sjøberg, and A. Mockus, "Variability and Reproducibility in Software Engineering: A Study of Four Companies That Developed the Same System," IEEE Trans. Software Eng. vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 407-429, May/June 2009.
[31] D. Banker, G. Davis, and S. Slaughter, "Software Development Practices, Software Complexity, and Software Maintenance Performance," Management Science, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 433-450, 1998.
[32] S. Faraj and L. Sproull, "Coordinating Expertise in Software Development Teams," Management Science, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1554-1568, 2000.
[33] F. Zickert, "Analysis of Two Theoretical Perspectives on Information Systems Development: Towards an Integrated Perspective," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Wirtschaftsinformatik, 2011.
[34] L. Dubé and G. Paré, "Rigor in Information Systems Positivist Case Research: Current Practices, Trends, and Recommendations," MIS Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 597-635, 2003.
[35] R. Hirschheim and H. Klein, "Four Paradigms of Information Systems Development," Comm. ACM, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1199-1216, 1989.
[36] M. Shaw, "Prospect for an Engineering Discipline of Software," IEEE Software, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 15-24, Nov. 1990.
[37] F. Brooks, "No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering," Computer, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 10-19, Apr. 1987.
[38] B. Boehm, "Improving Software Productivity," Software Eng., R. Selby, ed., pp. 151-178, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[39] T. Abdel-Hamid and S. Madnick, Software Project Dynamics. Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[40] H. Benbya and B. McKelvey, "Toward a Complexity Theory of Information Systems Development," Information Technology & People, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 12-34, 2006.
[41] T. Gill and R. Hicks, "Task Complexity and Informing Science: A Synthesis," Informing Science J., vol. 9, pp. 1-30, 2006.
[42] D. Campbell, "Task Complexity: A Review and Analysis," Academy of Management Rev., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40-52, 1988.
[43] S. Kauffman, At Home in the Universe. Oxford University Press, 1995.
[44] G. Luger, Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving. Addison Wesley, 2002.
[45] A. Newell and H. Simon, "Computer Science as Empirical Enquiry: Symbols and Search," Comm. ACM, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 113-126, 1976.
[46] A. van Lamsweerde, R. Darimont, and E. Letier, "Managing Conflicts in Goal-Driven Requirements Engineering," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 908-926, Nov. 1998.
[47] M. Bergman, J. King, and K. Lyytinen, "Large-Scale Requirements Analysis Revisited: The Need for Understanding the Political Ecology of Requirements Engineering," Requirements Eng., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 152-171, 2002.
[48] K. Pohl, Process-Centered Requirements Engineering. Wiley, 1996.
[49] O. Hanseth, E. Monteiro, and M. Hatling, "Developing Information Infrastructure: The Tension between Standardisation and Flexibility," Science, Technology, and Human Values, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 407-426, 1996.
[50] J. Gebauer and F. Schober, "Information System Flexibility and the Cost Efficiency of Business Processes," J. Assoc. for Information Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 122-147, 2006.
[51] R. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications, 1994.
[52] A. Lee, "A Scientific Methodology for MIS Case Studies," MIS Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 33-50, 1989.
[53] K. Eisenhardt, "Building Theories from Case Study Research," Academy of Management Rev., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 532-550, 1989.
[54] A. Pettigrew, "Issues of Time and Site Selection in Longitudinal Research on Change," The Information Systems Research Challenge: Qualitative Research Methods, J. Cash and P. Lawrence, eds., pp. 13-19, Harvard Business School Press, 1989.
[55] I. Benbasat, D. Goldstein, and M. Mead, "The Case Research Strategy in Studies of Information Systems," MIS Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 369-386, 1987.
[56] S. Sawyer, "Analysis by Long Walk: Some Approaches to the Synthesis of Multiple Sources of Evidence," Qualitative Research in IS: Issues and Trends, E. Trauth, ed., pp. 163-191, Idea Group Publishing, 2001.
[57] M. Miles and A. Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage Publications, 1994.
[58] J. Campbell, V. Maxey, and W. Watson, "Hawthorne Effect: Implications for Prehospital Research," Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 590-594, 1995.
[59] M. Patton, "Enhancing the Quality and Credibility of Qualitative Analysis," Health Services Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1189-1208, 1999.
[60] R.K. Yin, "Enhancing the Quality of Case Studies in Health Services Research," Health Services Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1209-1224, 1999.
[61] T. Jick, "Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 602-611, 1979.
[62] I. Benbasat and P. Todd, "The Effects of Decision Support and Task Contingencies on Model Formulation: A Cognitive Perspective," Decision Support Systems, vol. 17, pp. 241-252, 1996.
[63] S. Nidumolu, "The Effect of Coordination and Uncertainty on Software Project Performance: Residual Performance Risk as an Intervening Variable," Information Systems Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 191-219, 1995.
[64] C. Deephouse, T. Mukhopadhyay, D. Goldenson, and M. Keller, "Software Processes and Project Performance," J. Management Information Systems, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 187-205, 1996.
[65] H. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial. MIT Press, 1996.
[66] L. Marengoa and G. Dosi, "Division of Labor, Organizational Coordination and Market Mechanisms in Collective Problem-solving," J. Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 58, pp. 303-326. 2005.
[67] P. Duimering, B. Ran, N. Derbentseva, and C. Poile, "The Effects of Ambiguity on Project Task Structure in New Product Development," Knowledge and Process Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 239-251, 2006.
[68] A. Shenhar, "One Size Does Not Fit All Projects: Exploring Classical Contingency Domains," Management Science, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 394-414, 2001.
[69] E. Chikofsky and J. Cross, "Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery: A Taxonomy," IEEE Software, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 13-17, Jan. 1990.
[70] J. Campbell, V. Maxey, and W. Watson, "Hawthorne Effect: Implications for Prehospital Research," Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 26, pp. 590-594, 1995.
[71] G. Walsham, "Doing Interpretive Research," European J. Information Systems, vol. 15, pp. 320-330, 2006.
[72] H. Klein and M. Myers, "A Set of Principles for Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies in Information Systems," MIS Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 1, pp.67-93, 1999.
[73] A. Lee and R. Baskerville, "Generalizing Generalizability in Information Systems Research," Information Systems Research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 221-243, 2003.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool