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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper presents a UML 1.5 profile named TURTLE (<b>T</b>imed <b>U</b>ML and <b>RT</b>-<b>L</b>OTOS <b>E</b>nvironment) endowed with a formal semantics given in terms of RT-LOTOS. TURTLE relies on UML's extensibility mechanisms to enhance class and activity diagrams. Class diagrams are extended with specialized classes named <it>Tclasses</it>, which communicate and synchronize through gates. Also, associations between <it>Tclasses</it> are attributed by a composition operator (<it>Parallel</it>, <it>Synchro</it>, <it>Invocation</it>, <it>Sequence</it>, or <it>Preemption</it>) which provides them with a formal semantics. TURTLE extends UML activity diagrams with synchronization actions and temporal operators (deterministic delay, nondeterministic delay, time-limited offer, and time-capture). The real-time dimension of TURTLE has been further improved by the addition of two composition operators, <it>Periodic</it> and <it>Suspend</it>, as well as suspendable delay, latency, and time-limited offer operators at the activity diagram level. Core characteristics of TURLE are supported by TTool—the TURTLE toolkit—which includes a diagram editor, a RT-LOTOS code generator and a result analyzer. The toolkit reuses RTL, a RT-LOTOS validation tool offering debug-oriented simulation and exhaustive analysis. TTool hides RT-LOTOS to the end-user and allows him/her to directly check TURTLE modeling against logical errors and timing inconsistencies. Besides the foundations of the TURTLE profile, this paper also discusses its application in the context of space-based embedded software.</p>
Real-time systems, UML, RT-LOTOS, formal validation.

P. de Saqui-Sannes, J. Courtiat, L. Apvrille and C. Lohr, "TURTLE: A Real-Time UML Profile Supported by a Formal Validation Toolkit," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 30, no. , pp. 473-487, 2004.
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