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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Informally described design patterns are useful for communicating proven solutions for recurring design problems to developers, but they cannot be used as compliance points against which solutions that claim to conform to the patterns are checked. Pattern specification languages that utilize mathematical notation provide the needed formality, but often at the expense of usability. In this paper, we present a rigorous and practical technique for specifying pattern solutions expressed in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The specification technique paves the way for the development of tools that support rigorous application of design patterns to UML design models. The technique has been used to create specifications of solutions for several popular design patterns. We illustrate the use of the technique by specifying observer and visitor pattern solutions.</p>
Design patterns, object-oriented models, pattern specification, UML.

D. Kim, E. Song, R. B. France and S. Ghosh, "A UML-Based Pattern Specification Technique," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 30, no. , pp. 193-206, 2004.
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