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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We identify three types of attack on the intellectual property contained in software and three corresponding technical defenses. A defense against reverse engineering is obfuscation, a process that renders software unintelligible but still functional. A defense against software piracy is watermarking, a process that makes it possible to determine the origin of software. A defense against tampering is tamper-proofing, so that unauthorized modifications to software (for example, to remove a watermark) will result in nonfunctional code. We briefly survey the available technology for each type of defense.</p>
Obfuscation, watermarking, tamper-proofing, intellectual property protection.
Christian S. Collberg, Clark Thomborson, "Watermarking, Tamper-Proofing, and Obfuscation-Tools for Software Protection", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 28, no. , pp. 735-746, August 2002, doi:10.1109/TSE.2002.1027797
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