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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Using design patterns is claimed to improve programmer productivity and software quality. Such improvements may manifest both at construction time (in faster and better program design) and at maintenance time (in faster and more accurate program comprehension). This paper focuses on the maintenance context and reports on experimental tests of the following question: Does it help the maintainer if the design patterns in the program code are documented <it>explicitly</it> (using source code comments) compared to a well-commented program without explicit reference to design patterns? Subjects performed maintenance tasks on two programs ranging from 360 to 560 LOC including comments. Both programs contained design patterns. The controlled variable was whether the use of design patterns was documented explicitly or not. The experiments thus tested whether pattern comment lines (PCL) help during maintenance if patterns are relevant and sufficient program comments are already present. It turns out that this question is a challenge for the experimental methodology: A setup leading to relevant results is quite difficult to find. We discuss these issues in detail and suggest a general approach to such situations. The experiment was performed with Java by 74 German graduate students and then repeated with C++ by 22 American undergraduate students. A conservative analysis of the results supports the hypothesis that pattern-relevant maintenance tasks were completed faster or with fewer errors if redundant design pattern information was provided. Redundant means that the information carried in pattern comments is also available in different form in other comments. The contribution of this article is twofold: It provides the first controlled experiment results on design pattern usage and it presents a solution approach to an important class of experiment design problems for experiments regarding documentation.</p>
Controlled experiment, design pattern, comments, documentation, maintenance.

L. Prechelt, B. Unger-Lamprecht, M. Philippsen and W. F. Tichy, "Two Controlled Experiments Assessing the Usefulness of Design Pattern Documentation in Program Maintenance," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 28, no. , pp. 595-606, 2002.
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