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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper documents an application of the finite state model checker S<scp>pin</scp> to formally analyze a multithreaded plan execution module. The plan execution module is one component of NASA's New Millennium Remote Agent, an artificial intelligence-based space-craft control system architecture which launched in October of 1998 as part of the D<scp>eep</scp> S<scp>pace</scp> 1 mission. The bottom layer of the plan execution module architecture is a domain specific language, named E<scp>sl</scp> (Executive Support Language), implemented as an extension to multithreaded C<scp>ommon</scp> L<scp>isp</scp>. E<scp>sl</scp> supports the construction of reactive control mechanisms for autonomous robots and space-craft. For this case study, we translated the E<scp>sl</scp> services for managing interacting parallel goal-and-event driven processes into the P<scp>romela</scp> input language of S<scp>pin</scp>. A total of five previously undiscovered concurrency errors were identified within the implementation of E<scp>sl</scp>. According to the Remote Agent programming team, the effort has had a major impact, locating errors that would not have been located otherwise and, in one case, identifying a major design flaw. In fact, in a different part of the system, a concurrency bug identical to one discovered by this study escaped testing and caused a deadlock during an in-flight experiment 96 million kilometers from earth. The work additionally motivated the introduction of procedural abstraction in terms of inline procedures into S<scp>pin</scp>.</p>
Program verification, concurrent programs, model checking, temporal logic, program abstraction, model extraction, space-craft software.

M. Lowry, K. Havelund and J. Penix, "Formal Analysis of a Space-Craft Controller Using SPIN," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 27, no. , pp. 749-765, 2001.
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