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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The trace assertion method is a formal state machine based method for specifying module interfaces. A module interface specification treats the module as a black-box, identifying all module's access programs (i.e., programs that can be invoked from outside of the module) and describing their externally visible effects. In the method, both the module states and the behaviors observed are fully described by traces built from access program invocations and their visible effects. A formal model for the trace assertion method is proposed. The concept of step-traces is introduced and applied. The stepwise refinement of trace assertion specifications is considered. The role of nondeterminism, normal and exceptional behavior, value functions, and multiobject modules are discussed. The relationship with algebraic specifications is analyzed. A tabular notation for writing trace specifications to ensure readability is adapted.</p>
Module interface specifications, trace assertion method, state machines, Mealy machines, step-sequences, relational model, nondeterminism, module refinement, tabular notation.

R. Janicki and E. Sekerinski, "Foundations of the Trace Assertion Method of Module Interface Specification," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 27, no. , pp. 577-598, 2001.
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