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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper presents modeling frameworks for distributing development effort among software components to facilitate cost-effective progress toward a system reliability goal. Emphasis on components means that the frameworks can be used, for example, in cleanroom processes and to set certification criteria. The approach, based on reliability allocation, uses the operational profile to quantify the usage environment and a utilization matrix to link usage with system structure. Two approaches for reliability and cost planning are introduced: <it>Reliability-Constrained Cost-Minimization (RCCM)</it> and <it>Budget-Constrained Reliability-Maximization (BCRM)</it>. Efficient solutions are presented corresponding to three general functions for measuring cost-to-attain failure intensity. One of the functions is shown to be a generalization of the basic COCOMO form. Planning within budget, adaptation for other cost functions and validation issues are also discussed. Analysis capabilities are illustrated using a software system consisting of 26 developed modules and one procured module. The example also illustrates how to specify a reliability certification level, and minimum purchase price, for the procured module.</p>
Budget constraints, certification, cleanroom software development, COCOMO, Budget-Constrained Reliability-Maximization (BCRM) Model*, cost planning, failure intensity, Lagrangian multipliers, linear programming, operational profile, nonlinear programming, reliability allocation, Reliability-Constrained Cost-Minimization (RCCM) Model*, software components, software reliability. (*Terms introduced in this paper.)

N. Ohlsson, M. Zhao and M. E. Helander, "Planning Models for Software Reliability and Cost," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 24, no. , pp. 420-434, 1998.
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