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<p><b>Abstract</b>—An in-depth analysis of the 80×86 processor families identifies architectural properties that may have unexpected, and undesirable, results in secure computer systems. In addition, reported implementation errors in some processor versions render them undesirable for secure systems because of potential security and reliability problems. In this paper, we discuss the imbalance in scrutiny for hardware protection mechanisms relative to software, and why this imbalance is increasingly difficult to justify as hardware complexity increases. We illustrate this difficulty with examples of architectural subtleties and reported implementation errors.</p>
Hardware security architecture, hardware implementation error, microprocessor, computer security, penetration testing, covert channels.

P. A. Porras, O. Sibert and R. Lindell, "An Analysis of the Intel 80×86 Security Architecture and Implementations," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 22, no. , pp. 283-293, 1996.
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