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This paper presents a comprehensive design methodology for guaranteeing end-to-end requirements of real-time systems. Applications are structured as a set of process components connected by asynchronous channels, in which the endpoints are the system’s external inputs and outputs. Timing constraints are then postulated between these inputs and outputs; they express properties such as end-to-end propagation delay, temporal input-sampling correlation, and allowable separation times between updated output values. The automated design method works as follows: First new tasks are created to correlate related inputs, and an optimization algorithm, whose objective is to minimize CPU utilization, transforms the end-to-end requirements into a set of intermediate rate constraints on the tasks. If the algorithm fails, a restructuring tool attempts to eliminate bottlenecks by transforming the application, which is then re-submitted into the assignment algorithm. The final result is a schedulable set of fully periodic tasks, which collaboratively maintain the end-to-end constraints.
Real-time, design methodology, static priority scheduling, end-to-end timing constraints, constraint solving, non-linear optimization.

R. Gerber, S. Hong and M. Saksena, "Guaranteeing Real-Time Requirements With Resource-Based Calibration of Periodic Processes," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 21, no. , pp. 579-592, 1995.
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