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<p>We classify standby redundancy design space in process-control programs into the following three categories: cold standby, warm standby, and hot standby. Design parameters of warm standby are identified and the reliability of a system using warm standby is evaluated and compared with that of hot standby. Our analysis indicates that the warm standby scheme is particularly suitable for long-lived unmaintainable systems, especially those operating in harsh environments where burst hardware failures are possible. The feasibility of warm standby is demonstrated with a simulated chemical batch reactor system.</p>
process computer control; fault tolerant computing; software reliability; software maintenance; computer integrated manufacturing; redundancy; hierarchically structured process-control programs; standby redundancy design space; process-control programs; cold standby; warm standby; hot standby; system reliability; long-lived unmaintainable systems; burst hardware failures; simulated chemical batch reactor system

F. Bastani and I. Chen, "Warm Standby in Hierarchically Structured Process-Control Programs," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 20, no. , pp. 658-663, 1994.
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