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<p>Formal verification of program properties may be infeasible or impractical, and informal analysis may be sufficient. Informal analysis involves the informal acceptance, by inspection, of the validity of program properties or steps in an analysis. Informal analysis may also involve abstraction. Abstraction can be used to eliminate details and concentrate on more general properties. Abstraction will result in informal analysis if it includes the use of undefined properties. A systematic, informal method for analysis called QDA (Quick Defect Analysis) is described. QDA is a comments analysis process based on facts and hypotheses. Facts are used to create an abstract program model, and hypotheses are selected, nonobvious program properties which are identified as needing verification. Hypotheses are proved from the facts that define an abstraction. QDA is hypothesis-driven in the sense that only those parts of an abstraction that are needed to prove hypotheses are created. The QDA approach was applied to a previously well tested operational flight program (OFP). The QDA method and the results of the OFP experiment are presented. The problems of incomplete or unsound informal analysis are analyzed, the relationship of QDA to other analysis methods is discussed, and suggested improvements to the QDA method are described.</p>
program verification; programming theory; formal specification; program debugging; program diagnostics; QDA; systematic informal program analysis; formal verification; program properties; program validity; Quick Defect Analysis; comments analysis; abstract program model; program verification; hypothesis-driven method; operational flight program; specification; code reading

W. Howden and B. Wieand, "QDA - A Method for Systematic Informal Program Analysis," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 20, no. , pp. 445-462, 1994.
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