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<p>A technique is proposed for specifying universal quantification and existential quantification (combined with negation) in a two-dimensional (graphical) database query language. Unlike other approaches that provide set operators to simulate universal quantification, this technique allows a direct representation of universal quantification. Syntactic constructs for specifying universal and existential quantifications, two-dimensional translation of universal quantification to existential quantification (with negation), and translation of existentially quantified two-dimensional queries to relational queries are presented. The resulting relational queries can be processed directly by many existing database systems. The authors claim that this technique renders universal quantifications easy to understand. To substantiate this claim, they provide a simple, easy-to-follow guideline for constructing universally quantified queries.</p>
graphical database query language; universal quantification; existential quantification; direct representation; two-dimensional translation; existentially quantified two-dimensional queries; relational queries; computer graphics; database theory; formal specification; query languages; relational databases

K. Whang, A. Malhotra, G. Sockut, L. Burns and K. Choi, "Two-Dimensional Specification of Universal Quantification in a Graphical Database Query Language," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 18, no. , pp. 216-224, 1992.
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