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<p>Interleaved memories are essential in pipelined computers to attain high memory bandwidth. As a memory bank is accessed, a reservation is placed on the bank for the duration of the memory cycle, which is often considerably longer than the processor cycle time. This additional parameter, namely, the bank reservation time or the bank busy time, adds to the complexity of the memory model. For Markov models, exact solutions are not feasible even without this additional parameter due to the very large state space of the Markov chain. The authors develop a Markov model which explicitly tracks the bank reservation time. Because only one processor and the requested bank are modeled, the transition probabilities are not known and have to be approximated. The performance predicted by the model is in close agreement with simulation results.</p>
scalar memory references; pipelined multiprocessors; pipelined computers; high memory bandwidth; memory bank; memory cycle; processor cycle time; bank reservation time; bank busy time; Markov models; state space; Markov chain; transition probabilities; simulation results; Markov processes; parallel machines; performance evaluation; pipeline processing; probability; storage management

R. Ganesan and S. Weiss, "Scalar Memory References in Pipelined Multiprocessors: A Performance Study," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 18, no. , pp. 78-86, 1992.
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