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<p>The strategy of using multiple versions of independently developed software as a means to tolerate residual software design faults is discussed. The effectiveness of multiversion software is studied by comparing estimates of the failure probabilities of these systems with the failure probabilities of single versions. The estimates are obtained under a model of dependent failures and compared with estimates obtained when failures are assumed to be independent. The experimental results are based on 20 versions of an aerospace application developed and independently validated by 60 programmers from 4 universities. Descriptions of the application and development process are given, together with an analysis of the 20 versions.</p>
experimental evaluation; software redundancy; multiple versions; independently developed software; residual software design faults; multiversion software; failure probabilities; dependent failures; experimental results; aerospace application; programmers; development process; fault tolerant computing; program testing; redundancy; software reliability

D. McAllister et al., "An Experimental Evaluation of Software Redundancy as a Strategy for Improving Reliability," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 17, no. , pp. 692-702, 1991.
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