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<p>The authors have conducted a large-scale experiment in N-version programming. A total of 27 versions of a program were prepared independently from the same specification at two universities. The results of executing the versions revealed that the versions wereindividually extremely reliable but that the number of input cases in which more than one failed was substantially more than would be expected if they were statistically independent. After the versions had been executed, the failures of each version were examined and the associated faults located. It appears that minor differences in the software development environment would not have a major impact in reducing the incidence of faults that cause correlated failures.</p>
failure analysis; fault location; statistical correlation; N-version programming; software development environment; fault tolerant computing; program testing; software engineering.

N. Leveson, J. Knight and S. Brilliant, "Analysis of Faults in an N-Version Software Experiment," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 16, no. , pp. 238-247, 1990.
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