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<p>The authors address the problem of validating the dependability of fault-tolerant computing systems, in particular, the validation of the fault-tolerance mechanisms. The proposed approach is based on the use of fault injection at the physical level on a hardware/software prototype of the system considered. The place of this approach in a validation-directed design process and with respect to related work on fault injection is clearly identified. The major requirements and problems related to the development and application of a validation methodology based on fault injection are presented and discussed. Emphasis is put on the definition, analysis, and use of the experimental dependability measures that can be obtained. The proposed methodology has been implemented through the realization of a general pin-level fault injection tool (MESSALINE), and its usefulness is demonstrated by the application of MESSALINE to the experimental validation of two systems: a subsystem of a centralized computerized interlocking system for railway control applications and a distributed system corresponding to the current implementation of the dependable communication system of the ESPRIT Delta-4 Project.</p>
dependability validation; fault-tolerant computing systems; fault-tolerance mechanisms; hardware/software prototype; validation-directed design process; validation methodology; general pin-level fault injection tool; MESSALINE; centralized computerized interlocking system; railway control applications; distributed system; dependable communication system; ESPRIT Delta-4 Project; computer communications software; distributed processing; fault tolerant computing; program verification; railways; software tools.

M. Aguera et al., "Fault Injection for Dependability Validation: A Methodology and Some Applications," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 16, no. , pp. 166-182, 1990.
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