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<p>The vertical migration of complex application code into horizontal microcode makes traditional methods of handwritten and hand-optimized microcode with primitive assembly languages impractical. Higher-level languages that permit abstraction from low-level timing and concurrency details are considered a major step toward alleviating the problem. This approach is feasible only if compilers for these languages exist that can produce high-quality microcode and that can be targeted to new machines with modest effort and high reliability. An overview is provided of the Horizon retargetable microcode compiler, which facilitates the production of highly optimized microcode and the targeting of the compiler to specific machines.</p>
retargetable compiler; horizontal microarchitectures; vertical migration; complex application code; horizontal microcode; assembly languages; abstraction; timing; concurrency; Horizon; optimized microcode; microprogramming; program compilers

J. Walicki, R. Mueller, M. Duda and P. Sweany, "Horizon: A Retargetable Compiler for Horizontal Microarchitectures," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. , pp. 575-583, 1988.
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