Issue No. 03 - July-September (2005 vol. 2)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TDSC.2005.29
We focus on the problem of synthesizing failsafe fault-tolerance where fault-tolerance is added to an existing (fault-intolerant) program. A failsafe fault-tolerant program satisfies its specification (including safety and liveness) in the absence of faults. However, in the presence of faults, it satisfies its safety specification. We present a somewhat unexpected result that, in general, the problem of synthesizing failsafe fault-tolerant distributed programs from their fault-intolerant version is NP-complete in the state space of the program. We also identify a class of specifications, monotonic specifications, and a class of programs, monotonic programs, for which the synthesis of failsafe fault-tolerance can be done in polynomial time (in program state space). As an illustration, we show that the monotonicity restrictions are met for commonly encountered problems, such as Byzantine agreement, distributed consensus, and atomic commitment. Furthermore, we evaluate the role of these restrictions in the complexity of synthesizing failsafe fault-tolerance. Specifically, we prove that if only one of these conditions is satisfied, the synthesis of failsafe fault-tolerance is still NP-complete. Finally, we demonstrate the application of monotonicity property in enhancing the fault-tolerance of (distributed) nonmasking fault-tolerant programs to masking.
Index Terms- Fault-tolerance, automatic addition of fault-tolerance, formal methods, program synthesis, distributed programs.
S. S. Kulkarni and A. Ebnenasir, "Complexity Issues in Automated Synthesis of Failsafe Fault-Tolerance," in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 2, no. , pp. 201-215, 2005.