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In this paper, we describe a software infrastructure that unifies transactions and replication in three-tier architectures and provides data consistency and high availability for enterprise applications. The infrastructure uses transactions based on the CORBA Object Transaction Service to protect the application data in databases on stable storage, using a roll-backward recovery strategy, and replication based on the Fault Tolerant CORBA standard to protect the middle-tier servers, using a roll-forward recovery strategy. The infrastructure replicates the middle-tier servers to protect the application business logic processing. In addition, it replicates the transaction coordinator, which renders the two-phase commit protocol nonblocking and, thus, avoids potentially long service disruptions caused by failure of the coordinator. The infrastructure handles the interactions between the replicated middle-tier servers and the database servers through replicated gateways that prevent duplicate requests from reaching the database servers. It implements automatic client-side failover mechanisms, which guarantee that clients know the outcome of the requests that they have made, and retries aborted transactions automatically on behalf of the clients.
Fault tolerance, transaction processing, replication, CORBA, three-tier architectures.

P. M. Melliar-Smith, W. Zhao and L. E. Moser, "Unification of Transactions and Replication in Three-Tier Architectures Based on CORBA," in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 2, no. , pp. 20-33, 2005.
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