Issue No. 11 - Nov. (2014 vol. 36)
Raghuraman Gopalan , Video and Multimedia Technologies Research Department, AT&T Labs-Research, Middletown, NJ
Ruonan Li , School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Rama Chellappa , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the Center for Automation Research, UMIACS, University of Maryland College Park, MD
With unconstrained data acquisition scenarios widely prevalent, the ability to handle changes in data distribution across training and testing data sets becomes important. One way to approach this problem is through domain adaptation, and in this paper we primarily focus on the unsupervised scenario where the labeled
source domain training data is accompanied by unlabeled target domain test data. We present a two-stage data-driven approach by generating intermediate data representations that could provide relevant information on the domain shift. Starting with a linear representation of domains in the form of generative subspaces of same dimensions for the source and target domains, we first utilize the underlying geometry of the space of these subspaces, the Grassmann manifold, to obtain a ‘shortest’ geodesic path between the two domains. We then sample points along the geodesic to obtain intermediate cross-domain data representations, using which a discriminative classifier is learnt to estimate the labels of the target data. We subsequently incorporate non-linear representation of domains by considering a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space representation, and a low-dimensional manifold representation using Laplacian Eigenmaps, and also examine other domain adaptation settings such as (i) semi-supervised adaptation where the target domain is partially labeled, and (ii) multi-domain adaptation where there could be more than one domain in source and/or target data sets. Finally, we supplement our adaptation technique with (i) fine-grained reference domains that are created by blending samples from source and target data sets to provide some evidence on the actual domain shift, and (ii) a multi-class boosting analysis to obtain robustness to the choice of algorithm parameters. We evaluate our approach for object recognition problems and report competitive results on two widely used Office and Bing adaptation data sets.
Manifolds, Kernel, Object recognition, Data models, Adaptation models, Vectors, Training,Grassmann manifold, Domain adaptation, Object recognition, Unsupervised,object recognition, Domain adaptation, unsupervised, Grassmann manifold
Raghuraman Gopalan, Ruonan Li, Rama Chellappa, "Unsupervised Adaptation Across Domain Shifts by Generating Intermediate Data Representations", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 36, no. , pp. 2288-2302, Nov. 2014, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2013.249