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Issue No. 10 - Oct. (2013 vol. 35)
ISSN: 0162-8828
pp: 2401-2412
Xin Geng , Sch. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Southeast Univ., Nanjing, China
Chao Yin , Sch. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Southeast Univ., Nanjing, China
Zhi-Hua Zhou , Nat. Key Lab. for Novel Software Technol., Nanjing Univ., Nanjing, China
One of the main difficulties in facial age estimation is that the learning algorithms cannot expect sufficient and complete training data. Fortunately, the faces at close ages look quite similar since aging is a slow and smooth process. Inspired by this observation, instead of considering each face image as an instance with one label (age), this paper regards each face image as an instance associated with a label distribution. The label distribution covers a certain number of class labels, representing the degree that each label describes the instance. Through this way, one face image can contribute to not only the learning of its chronological age, but also the learning of its adjacent ages. Two algorithms, named IIS-LLD and CPNN, are proposed to learn from such label distributions. Experimental results on two aging face databases show remarkable advantages of the proposed label distribution learning algorithms over the compared single-label learning algorithms, either specially designed for age estimation or for general purpose.
Estimation, Aging, Neural networks, Algorithm design and analysis, Vectors, Training, Humans

Xin Geng, Chao Yin and Zhi-Hua Zhou, "Facial Age Estimation by Learning from Label Distributions," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2401-2412, 2013.
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