The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.34)
pp: 2341-2350
Jingu Heo , Samsung Adv. Inst. of Technol., Yongin, South Korea
M. Savvides , Cylab Biometrics Center, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA
In this paper, we propose a novel method for generating a realistic 3D human face from a single 2D face image for the purpose of synthesizing new 2D face images at arbitrary poses using gender and ethnicity specific models. We employ the Generic Elastic Model (GEM) approach, which elastically deforms a generic 3D depth-map based on the sparse observations of an input face image in order to estimate the depth of the face image. Particularly, we show that Gender and Ethnicity specific GEMs (GE-GEMs) can approximate the 3D shape of the input face image more accurately, achieving a better generalization of 3D face modeling and reconstruction compared to the original GEM approach. We qualitatively validate our method using publicly available databases by showing each reconstructed 3D shape generated from a single image and new synthesized poses of the same person at arbitrary angles. For quantitative comparisons, we compare our synthesized results against 3D scanned data and also perform face recognition using synthesized images generated from a single enrollment frontal image. We obtain promising results for handling pose and expression changes based on the proposed method.
Three dimensional displays, Face recognition, Solid modeling, Shape analysis, Image reconstruction, Computational modeling, Principal component analysis, Cultural differences, face recognition, Generic elastic models, gender and ethnicity specific models, face synthesis
Jingu Heo, M. Savvides, "Gender and Ethnicity Specific Generic Elastic Models from a Single 2D Image for Novel 2D Pose Face Synthesis and Recognition", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.34, no. 12, pp. 2341-2350, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2011.275
[1] J.D. Durou, M. Falcone, and M. Sagona, "A Survey of Numerical Methods for Shape from Shading," Technical Report 2004-2-R, IRIT, 2004.
[2] R. Zhang, P.S. Tsai, J. Edwin Cryer, and M. Shah, "Shape from Shading: A Survey," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 690-706, Aug. 1999.
[3] J.J. Atick, P.A. Griffin, and A.N. Redlich, "Statistical Approach to Shape from Shading: Reconstruction of 3D Face Surfaces from Single 2D Images," Computation in Neurological Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, 1996.
[4] V. Blanz, S. Romdhani, and T. Vetter, "Face Identification across Different Poses and Illuminations with a 3D Morphable Model," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 202-207, 2002.
[5] V. Blanz and T. Vetter, "Face Recognition Based on Fitting a 3D Morphable Model," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1063-1074, Sept. 2003.
[6] T.F. Cootes, C.J. Taylor, D. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models: Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 38-59, 1995.
[7] K. Seshadri and M. Savvides, "Robust Modified Active Shape Model for Automatic Facial Landmark Annotation of Frontal Faces," Proc. IEEE Third Int'l Conf. Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, pp. 319-326, 2009.
[8] T. Cootes, G. Edwards, and C. Taylor, "Active Appearance Models," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, vol. 2, pp. 484-498, 1998.
[9] C.T. Loop, "Smooth Subdivision Surfaces Based on Triangles," MS thesis, Dept. of Math., Univ. of Utah, Aug. 1987.
[10] S.F. Wang and S.H. Lai, "Efficient 3D Face Reconstruction from a Single 2D Image by Combining Statistical and Geometrical Information," Proc. Seventh Asian Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 427-436, 2006.
[11] D. Fidaleo and G. Medioni, "Model-Assisted 3D Face Reconstruction from Video," Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, pp. 124-138, 2007.
[12] J. Heo, "Generic Elastic Models for 2D Pose Synthesis and Face Recognition," PhD thesis, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Eng., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Dec. 2009.
[13] C. Tomasi and T. Kanade, "Shape and Motion from Image Streams under Orthography: A Factorization Method," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 137-154, 1992.
[14] R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004.
[15] I. Matthews and S. Baker, "Active Appearance Models Revisited," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 135-164, 2004.
[16] J. Xiao, S. Baker, I. Matthews, R. Gross, and T. Kanade, "Real-Time Combined 2D + 3D Active Appearance Model," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 535-542, 2004.
[17] T. Cootes, K. Walker, and C. Taylor, "View-Based Active Appearance Models," Proc. Fourth IEEE Int'l Conf. Automatic Face Modeling and Gesture Recognition, 2000.
[18] S. Romdhani, S. Gong, and A. Psarrou, "A Multi-View Non-Linear Active Shape Model Using Kernel PCA," Proc. 10th British Machine Vision Conf., vol. 2, pp. 483-492, 1999.
[19] A. O'Toole, K. Deffenbacher, D. Valentin, and H. Abdi, "Structural Aspects of Face Recognition and the Other Race Effect," Memory and Cognition, vol. 22, pp. 208-224, 1994.
[20] J. Brigham and P. Barkowitz, "Do They All Look Alike? The Effect of Race, Sex, Experience and Attitudes on the Ability to Recognize Faces," J. Applied Social Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 306-318, 1978.
[21] S. Gutta, J. Huang, P. Phillips, and H. Wechsler, "Mixture of Experts for Classification of Gender, Ethnic Origin, and Pose of Human Faces," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 948-960, July 2000.
[22] B. Moghaddam and M. Yang, "Learning Gender with Support Faces," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 707-711, May 2002.
[23] R. Dovgard and R. Basri, "Statistical Symmetric Shape from Shading for 3D Structure Recovery of Faces," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, vol. 3022, 2004.
[24] W. Zhao and R. Chellappa, "Illumination-Insensitive Face Recognition Using Symmetric Shape-from-Shading," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 286-293, 2000.
[25] J. Xiao, J. Chai, and T. Kanade, "A Closed-Form Solution to Non-Rigid Shape and Motion Recovery," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 67, pp. 233-246, 2006.
[26] X. Lu and A.K. Jain, "Ethnicity Identification from Face Images," Proc. SPIE, vol. 5404, pp. 114-123, 2004.
[27] R. Malpass and J. Kravitz, "Recognition for Faces of Own and Other Race," J. Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 330-334, 1969.
[28] X. Hou, S.Z. Li, H. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, "Direct Appearance Models," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 828-833, 2001.
[29] A.K. Jain, Hou, S.C. Dass, and K. Nandakuma, "Soft Biometric Traits for Personal Recognition Systems," Proc. IEEE Conf. Biometric Authentication, pp. 731-738, 2004.
[30] V. Vapnik, Statistical Learning Theory. JohnWiley and Sons, 1998.
[31] A. Pentland, B. Moghaddam, and T. Starner, "View-Based and Modular Eigenspaces for Face Recognition," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 84-91, 1994.
[32] R. Gross, I. Matthews, J. Cohn, T. Kanade, and S. Baker, "Multi-PIE," Proc. Int'l Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2008.
[33] "Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC)," http://face.nist. govmbgc/, 2009.
[34] "The FERET Database," /, 2004.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool