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Green Image
Issue No. 07 - July (2012 vol. 34)
ISSN: 0162-8828
pp: 1394-1408
Congcong Li , Cornell University, Ithaca
Adarsh Kowdle , Cornell University, Ithaca
Ashutosh Saxena , Cornell University, Ithaca
Tsuhan Chen , Cornell University, Ithaca
Scene understanding includes many related subtasks, such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection, etc. Each of these subtasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many of them. These classifiers operate on the same raw image and provide correlated outputs. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that jointly optimizes all the subtasks while requiring only a “black box” interface to the original classifier for each subtask. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about which error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the subtasks in the domain of scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling, and saliency detection. Our method also improves performance in two robotic applications: an object-grasping robot and an object-finding robot.
Scene understanding, classification, machine learning, robotics.

A. Kowdle, C. Li, A. Saxena and T. Chen, "Toward Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 34, no. , pp. 1394-1408, 2011.
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