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Issue No. 10 - October (2011 vol. 33)
ISSN: 0162-8828
pp: 2066-2080
Farès Menasri , A2iA SA, Artificial Intelligence and Image Analysis, Paris
Laurence Likforman-Sulem , Telecom ParisTech/TSI and CNRS LTCI, Paris
Rami Al-Hajj Mohamad , University of Balamand, Lebanon
Christopher Kermorvant , A2iA SA, Artificial Intelligence and Image Analysis, Paris
Anne-Laure Bianne-Bernard , A2iA SA, Artificial Intelligence and Image Analysis and Telecom ParisTech/TSI and CNRS LTCI, Paris
Chafic Mokbel , University of Balamand, Lebanon
ABSTRACT
This study aims at building an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main component of this combined system is an HMM-based recognizer which considers dynamic and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions, yielding larger clusters, and precise questions, yielding smaller ones. Such clustering enables us to reduce the total number of models and Gaussians densities by 10. We then apply this modeling to the recognition of handwritten words. Experiments are conducted on three publicly available databases based on Latin or Arabic languages: Rimes, IAM, and OpenHart. The results obtained show that contextual information embedded with dynamic modeling significantly improves recognition.
INDEX TERMS
Latin and Arabic handwriting recognition, context-dependent HMMs, neural-network combination.
CITATION
Farès Menasri, Laurence Likforman-Sulem, Rami Al-Hajj Mohamad, Christopher Kermorvant, Anne-Laure Bianne-Bernard, Chafic Mokbel, "Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 33, no. , pp. 2066-2080, October 2011, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2011.22
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