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This paper aims to address the problem of modelling video behaviour captured in surveillancevideos for the applications of online normal behaviour recognition and anomaly detection. A novelframework is developed for automatic behaviour profiling and online anomaly sampling/detectionwithout any manual labelling of the training dataset. The framework consists of the followingkey components: (1) A compact and effective behaviour representation method is developed basedon discrete scene event detection. The similarity between behaviour patterns are measured basedon modelling each pattern using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). (2) Natural grouping ofbehaviour patterns is discovered through a novel spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervisedmodel selection and feature selection on the eigenvectors of a normalised affinity matrix. (3) Acomposite generative behaviour model is constructed which is capable of generalising from asmall training set to accommodate variations in unseen normal behaviour patterns. (4) A run-timeaccumulative anomaly measure is introduced to detect abnormal behaviour while normal behaviourpatterns are recognised when sufficient visual evidence has become available based on an onlineLikelihood Ratio Test (LRT) method. This ensures robust and reliable anomaly detection and normalbehaviour recognition at the shortest possible time. The effectiveness and robustness of our approachis demonstrated through experiments using noisy and sparse datasets collected from both indoorand outdoor surveillance scenarios. In particular, it is shown that a behaviour model trained usingan unlabelled dataset is superior to those trained using the same but labelled dataset in detectinganomaly from an unseen video. The experiments also suggest that our online LRT based behaviourrecognition approach is advantageous over the commonly used Maximum Likelihood (ML) methodin differentiating ambiguities among different behaviour classes observed online.
Behaviour profiling, Anomaly Detection, Dynamic Scene Modelling, Spectral clustering, FeatureSelection, Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

S. Gong and T. Xiang, "Video Behavior Profiling for Anomaly Detection," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 30, no. , pp. 893-908, 2007.
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