Issue No. 10 - October (2007 vol. 29)
We describe a semi-supervised regression algorithm that learns to transform one time series into another time series given examples of the transformation. This algorithm is applied to tracking, where a time series of observations from sensors is transformed to a time series describing the pose of a target. Instead of defining and implementing such transformations for each tracking task separately, our algorithm learns a memoryless transformation of time series from a few example input-output mappings. The algorithm searches for a smooth function that fits the training examples and, when applied to the input time series, produces a time series that evolves according to assumed dynamics. The learning procedure is fast and lends itself to a closed-form solution. It is closely related to nonlinear system identification and manifold learning techniques. We demonstrate our algorithm on the tasks of tracking RFID tags from signal strength measurements, recovering the pose of rigid objects, deformable bodies, and articulated bodies from video sequences. For these tasks, this algorithm requires significantly fewer examples compared to fully-supervised regression algorithms or semi-supervised learning algorithms that do not take the dynamics of the output time series into account.
Semi-supervised learning, example-based tracking, manifold learning, nonlinear system identification
Trevor Darrell, Ben Recht, Ali Rahimi, "Learning to Transform Time Series with a Few Examples", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. , pp. 1759-1775, October 2007, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1001