Issue No. 04 - April (2007 vol. 29)
Bir Bhanu , IEEE
Hui Chen , IEEE
Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape model and locates the ear helix and the antihelix parts in registered 2D color and 3D range images. For ear identification and verification using range images, two new representations are proposed. These include the ear helix/antihelix representation obtained from the detection algorithm and the local surface patch (LSP) representation computed at feature points. A local surface descriptor is characterized by a centroid, a local surface type, and a 2D histogram. The 2D histogram shows the frequency of occurrence of shape index values versus the angles between the normal of reference feature point and that of its neighbors. Both shape representations are used to estimate the initial rigid transformation between a gallery-probe pair. This transformation is applied to selected locations of ears in the gallery set and a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is used to iteratively refine the transformation to bring the gallery ear and probe ear into the best alignment in the sense of the least root mean square error. The experimental results on the UCR data set of 155 subjects with 902 images under pose variations and the University of Notre Dame data set of 302 subjects with time-lapse gallery-probe pairs are presented to compare and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the system.
3D ear biometrics, 3D ear identification, 3D ear verification, range and color images, surface matching.
Bir Bhanu, Hui Chen, "Human Ear Recognition in 3D", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. , pp. 718-737, April 2007, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1005