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Automatic image orientation detection for natural images is a useful, yet challenging research topic. Humans use scene context and semantic object recognition to identify the correct image orientation. However, it is difficult for a computer to perform the task in the same way because current object recognition algorithms are extremely limited in their scope and robustness. As a result, existing orientation detection methods were built upon low-level vision features such as spatial distributions of color and texture. Discrepant detection rates have been reported for these methods in the literature. We have developed a probabilistic approach to image orientation detection via confidence-based integration of low-level and semantic cues within a Bayesian framework. Our current accuracy is 90 percent for unconstrained consumer photos, impressive given the findings of a psychophysical study conducted recently. The proposed framework is an attempt to bridge the gap between computer and human vision systems and is applicable to other problems involving semantic scene content understanding.
Image orientation, semantic cues, low-level cues, Bayesian networks, probabilistic inference, classification confidence.

J. Luo and M. Boutell, "Automatic Image Orientation Detection via Confidence-Based Integration of Low-Level and Semantic Cues," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 27, no. , pp. 715-726, 2005.
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