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This work deals with fitting 2D and 3D implicit polynomials (IPs) to 2D curves and 3D surfaces, respectively. The zero-set of the polynomial is determined by the IP coefficients and describes the data. The polynomial fitting algorithms proposed in this paper aim at reducing the sensitivity of the polynomial to coefficient errors. Errors in coefficient values may be the result of numerical calculations, when solving the fitting problem or due to coefficient quantization. It is demonstrated that the effect of reducing this sensitivity also improves the fitting tightness and stability of the proposed two algorithms in fitting noisy data, as compared to existing algorithms like the well-known 3L and gradient-one algorithms. The development of the proposed algorithms is based on an analysis of the sensitivity of the zero-set to small coefficient changes and on minimizing a bound on the maximal error for one algorithm and minimizing the error variance for the second. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms provide a significant reduction in fitting errors, particularly when fitting noisy data of complex shapes with high order polynomials, as compared to the performance obtained by the abovementioned existing algorithms.
Implicit polynomials, zero-set sensitivity, curve and surface fitting, stable fitting.

D. Malah, M. Barzohar and A. Helzer, "Stable Fitting of 2D Curves and 3D Surfaces by Implicit Polynomials," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. , pp. 1283-1294, 2004.
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