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<p><b>Abstract</b>—In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate curvature of iso gray-level surfaces in gray-value images. Our method succeeds where standard isophote curvature estimation methods fail. There is neither a segmentation of the surface needed nor a parametric model assumed. Our estimator works on the orientation field of the surface. This orientation field and a description of local structure is obtained by the Gradient Structure Tensor. The estimated orientation field has discontinuities mod <tmath> \pi</tmath>. It is mapped via the Knutsson mapping to a continuous representation. The principal curvatures of the surface, a coordinate invariant property, are computed in this mapped representation. From these curvatures, locally the bending energy is computed to describe the surface shape. An extensive evaluation shows that our curvature estimation is robust even in the presence of noise, independent of the scale of the object and furthermore the relative error stays small.</p>
Principal curvatures, surface area, local surface measures, gradient structure tensor, Knutsson mapping.

F. J. Timmermans, L. J. van Vliet, B. Rieger and P. W. Verbeek, "On Curvature Estimation of ISO Surfaces in 3D Gray-Value Images and the Computation of Shape Descriptors," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. , pp. 1088-1094, 2004.
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