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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The complete set of measurements that could ever be used by a passive 3D vision algorithm is the plenoptic function or light-field. We give a concise characterization of when the light-field of a Lambertian scene uniquely determines its shape and, conversely, when the shape is inherently ambiguous. In particular, we show that stereo computed from the light-field is ambiguous if and only if the scene is radiating light of a constant intensity (and color, etc.) over an extended region.</p>
3D shape reconstruction, stereo, shape-from-silhouette, the plenoptic function, light-fields, uniqueness.

T. Kanade, S. Baker and T. Sim, "When Is the Shape of a Scene Unique Given Its Light-Field: A Fundamental Theorem of 3D Vision?," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. , pp. 100-109, 2003.
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