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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We present and compare methods for feature-level (predetection) and decision-level (postdetection) fusion of multisensor data. This study emphasizes fusion techniques that are suitable for noncommensurate data sampled at noncoincident points. Decision-level fusion is most convenient for such data, but it is suboptimal in principle, since targets not detected by all sensors will not obtain the full benefits of fusion. A novel algorithm for feature-level fusion of noncommensurate, noncoincidently sampled data is described, in which a model is fitted to the sensor data and the model parameters are used as features. Formulations for both feature-level and decision-level fusion are described, along with some practical simplifications. A closed-form expression is available for feature-level fusion of normally distributed data and this expression is used with simulated data to study requirements for sample position accuracy in multisensor data. The performance of feature-level and decision-level fusion algorithms are compared for experimental data acquired by a metal detector, a ground-penetrating radar, and an infrared camera at a challenging test site containing surrogate mines. It is found that fusion of binary decisions does not perform significantly better than the best available sensor. The performance of feature-level fusion is significantly better than the individual sensors, as is decision-level fusion when detection confidence information is also available (“soft-decision” fusion).</p>
Land mines, sensor fusion, infrared, ground penetrating radar, metal detectors.

B. A. Baertlein and A. H. Gunatilaka, "Feature-Level and Decision-Level Fusion of Noncoincidently Sampled Sensors for Land Mine Detection," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 23, no. , pp. 577-589, 2001.
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