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<p><b>Abstract</b>—In this paper, we present a general example-based framework for detecting objects in static images by components. The technique is demonstrated by developing a system that locates people in cluttered scenes. The system is structured with four distinct example-based detectors that are trained to separately find the four components of the human body: the head, legs, left arm, and right arm. After ensuring that these components are present in the proper geometric configuration, a second example-based classifier combines the results of the component detectors to classify a pattern as either a “person” or a “nonperson.” We call this type of hierarchical architecture, in which learning occurs at multiple stages, an Adaptive Combination of Classifiers (ACC). We present results that show that this system performs significantly better than a similar full-body person detector. This suggests that the improvement in performance is due to the component-based approach and the ACC data classification architecture. The algorithm is also more robust than the full-body person detection method in that it is capable of locating partially occluded views of people and people whose body parts have little contrast with the background.</p>
Object detection, people detection, pattern recognition, machine learning, components.

T. Poggio, C. Papageorgiou and A. Mohan, "Example-Based Object Detection in Images by Components," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 23, no. , pp. 349-361, 2001.
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