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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper describes a probabilistic syntactic approach to the detection and recognition of temporally extended activities and interactions between multiple agents. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels. The lower level detections are performed using standard independent probabilistic event detectors to propose candidate detections of low-level features. The outputs of these detectors provide the input stream for a stochastic context-free grammar parsing mechanism. The grammar and parser provide longer range temporal constraints, disambiguate uncertain low-level detections, and allow the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the structure of temporal events in a given domain. To achieve such a system we: 1) provide techniques for generating a discrete symbol stream from continuous low-level detectors; 2) extend stochastic context-free parsing to handle uncertainty in the input symbol stream; 3) augment a run-time parsing algorithm to enforce intersymbol constraints such as requiring temporal consistency between primitives; and 4) extend the consistency filtering to maintain consistent multiobject interactions. We develop a real-time system and demonstrate the approach in several experiments on gesture recognition and in video surveillance. In the surveillance application, we show how the system correctly interprets activities of multiple, interacting objects.</p>
Syntactic pattern recognition, action recognition, high level vision, video surveillance, gesture recognition, video monitoring.

Y. A. Ivanov and A. F. Bobick, "Recognition of Visual Activities and Interactions by Stochastic Parsing," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. , pp. 852-872, 2000.
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