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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Clustering about principal curves combines parametric modeling of noise with nonparametric modeling of feature shape. This is useful for detecting curvilinear features in spatial point patterns, with or without background noise. Applications include the detection of curvilinear minefields from reconnaissance images, some of the points in which represent false detections, and the detection of seismic faults from earthquake catalogs. Our algorithm for principal curve clustering is in two steps: The first is hierarchical and agglomerative (HPCC) and the second consists of iterative relocation based on the Classification EM algorithm (CEM-PCC). HPCC is used to combine potential feature clusters, while CEM-PCC refines the results and deals with background noise. It is important to have a good starting point for the algorithm: This can be found manually or automatically using, for example, nearest neighbor clutter removal or model-based clustering. We choose the number of features and the amount of smoothing simultaneously, using approximate Bayes factors.</p>
Bayes factor, BIC, CEM algorithm, earthquake, EM algorithm, Hough transform, model-based clustering, smoothing, spatial point process, visual defect metrology.

D. C. Stanford and A. E. Raftery, "Finding Curvilinear Features in Spatial Point Patterns: Principal Curve Clustering with Noise," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. , pp. 601-609, 2000.
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