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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A fuzzy decision tree is constructed by allowing the possibility of partial membership of a point in the nodes that make up the tree structure. This extension of its expressive capabilities transforms the decision tree into a powerful functional approximant that incorporates features of connectionist methods, while remaining easily interpretable. Fuzzification is achieved by superimposing a fuzzy structure over the skeleton of a CART decision tree. A training rule for fuzzy trees, similar to backpropagation in neural networks, is designed. This rule corresponds to a global optimization algorithm that fixes the parameters of the fuzzy splits. The method developed for the automatic generation of fuzzy decision trees is applied to both classification and regression problems. In regression problems, it is seen that the continuity constraint imposed by the function representation of the fuzzy tree leads to substantial improvements in the quality of the regression and limits the tendency to overfitting. In classification, fuzzification provides a means of uncovering the structure of the probability distribution for the classification errors in attribute space. This allows the identification of regions for which the error rate of the tree is significantly lower than the average error rate, sometimes even below the Bayes misclassification rate.</p>
Automatic learning, decision trees, fuzzy set theory, global optimization, backpropagation, nonparametric regression, classification.
James F. Lutsko, Alberto Suárez, "Globally Optimal Fuzzy Decision Trees for Classification and Regression", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. , pp. 1297-1311, December 1999, doi:10.1109/34.817409
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