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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper presents Nonstationary Markovian Models and their application to recognition of strings of tokens. Domain specific knowledge is brought to bear on the application of recognizing zip Codes in the U.S. mailstream by the use of postal directory files. These files provide a wealth of information on the delivery points (mailstops) corresponding to each zip code. This data feeds into the models as <it>n-grams</it>, statistics that are seamlessly integrated with recognition scores of digit images. An especially interesting facet of the model is its ability to excite and inhibit certain positions in the n-grams leading to the familiar area of Markov Random Fields. The authors have previously described elsewhere [<ref type="bib" rid="bibI09902">2</ref>] a methodology for deriving probability values from recognizer scores. These probability measures allow the Markov chain to be constructed in a truly Bayesian framework. We empirically illustrate the success of Markovian modeling in postprocessing applications of string recognition. We present the recognition accuracy of the different models on a set of 20,000 zip codes. The performance is superior to the present system which ignores all contextual information and simply relies on the recognition scores of the digit recognizers.</p>
Nonstationary hidden Markov models, zip code recognition, postprocessing, class conditional probability, Markov random fields.

V. Govindaraju, D. Bouchaffra and S. N. Srihari, "Postprocessing of Recognized Strings Using Nonstationary Markovian Models," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. , pp. 990-999, 1999.
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