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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A new Kalman-filter based active contour model is proposed for tracking of nonrigid objects in combined spatio-velocity space. The model employs measurements of gradient-based image potential and of optical-flow along the contour as system measurements. In order to improve robustness to image clutter and to occlusions an optical-flow based detection mechanism is proposed. The method detects and rejects spurious measurements which are not consistent with previous estimation of image motion.</p>
Active contour, Kalman snakes, optical-flow, robust tracking.

N. Peterfreund, "Robust Tracking of Position and Velocity With Kalman Snakes," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. , pp. 564-569, 1999.
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