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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Personal identification documents, such as photo ID cards, are being used increasingly for such activities as financial transactions; entry into restricted areas; and personal verification for medical, government, and commercial (in particular, airlines) services. With this trend, there is also the increasing trend toward counterfeiting these documents for illegal gain. We present an approach to authenticating photo-ID documents that relies on pattern recognition and public-key cryptography and has security advantages over physical mechanisms that currently safeguard cards, such as optical laminates and holograms. The pattern-recognition component of this approach is based on a photo signature that is a concise representation of the photo image on the document. This photo signature is stored in a database for remote authentication or in encrypted form on the card for stand-alone authentication. Verification of the ID document entails scanning both the photo image and a machine-readable form of the text information, determining the photo signature, and comparing this information against the reference. In this paper, we describe the method and present results of testing a large database of images for photo-signature match in the presence of noise.</p>
Document authentication, document image recognition, photo signature, photo-ID documents, ID cards, counterfeiting, cryptography, pattern recognition.

I. Rabinovich and L. O'Gorman, "Secure Identification Documents Via Pattern Recognition and Public-Key Cryptography," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. , pp. 1097-1102, 1998.
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